Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Morozova O.A. Structural network modelling in cognitive science

Many objects of study of cognitive sciences can be naturally represented in a form of networks. In network model nodes (cells, people, groups, words, categories, etc.) are defined by connections that they (don’t) have, form and lose. Thus, network model shifts emphasis from attributes of elements to their relations, evolution of those relations and – consequently – wholesome structure of the system. Traditional approach to network modelling in cognitive science has been conceptual approach (models of A.Collins and E.Loftus, J.Anderson, neural networks of D.Rumelhart, D.Hinton, etc). Main flaw of this approach is that its models represent not the structure of cognitive system per se, but authors’ ideas about that structure, they also often use hypothetical constructs, such as chunks and artificial neurons. At the start of XXI century another – structural – approach to network modelling has emerged. In contrast to conceptual model, structural model is a direct visualization of a data array that describes the system (e.g., MRI results, orthographic dictionary, social connections data, log of incoming and outgoing information packages, associative thesaurus, etc.). Topology of resulting network is analyzed by mathematical apparatus of computational network science. Based on results of this analysis the author can then produce hypotheses about evolutionary mechanisms that formed that structure and also dynamical consequences – how system’s structure influences cognitive processes. Our article describes main principles, notions and goals of structural network modelling. Brief history of network models is presented: from regular graphs to complex scale-free networks. Special emphasis is made on specificity of structural modelling in cognitive science.

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Karpinski K.V. The Identity-forming function of meaning in life

The connection between the individual meaning of life and the personal and social identity of an individual is revealed. Classical and modern conceptions that consider the meaning of life as a prerequisite for the formation, component of the structure and the necessary condition for the functioning of identity are discussed. On the basis of generalization of theoretical and empirical material, psychological mechanisms for identification function of the meaning of life are defined. It is shown that the meaning of life serves as a subjective identifier – content of the inner world (self-consciousness), on the basis of which the person, firstly, establishes the continuity of his own self; secondly, relates itself to other people, social groups, societies and cultures, determines its own likeness and belonging to them, develops a sense of solidarity and ownership. In this function, the meaning of life is a psychological mean by which the operations of comparison, opposition and identification are carried out in the systems of relations «Me - not Me» (personal identity) and «Me – We – They» (social identity). Particular attention is paid to the psychological regularities of the correlation and mutual transitions of the crisis of meaninglessness and identity crisis in the development of the individual. The main lines for further theoretical analysis and empirical verification of the relationship between the meaning of life and the personal and social identity are outlined. In general, the analysis shows that the meaning of life as a phenomenon is inherent polyfunctionality, e.g. the multiplicity and heterogeneity of functions performed in the context of the development and functioning of the individual.

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Pankratova A.A., Osin E.N., Hasanova U.U. Levels of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism in Russia and Azerbaijan

The paper tests the measurement invariance of the Russian version of INDCOL questionnaire by H.Triandis in samples from Russia (n = 333) and Azerbaijan (n = 326) using multigroup exploratory structural equation modelling (MG-ESEM) and differential item functioning analysis based on the MIMIC model. The poor fit of the theoretically expected structure is explained by the presence of factor cross-loadings and correlated uniquenesses. The internal consistency of the scales (Cronbach's alpha) is in the 0,53–0,77 range. The comparison of latent means using MG-ESEM and using the MIMIC model has resulted in similar findings. The Russian sample showed higher levels of vertical individualism (rivalry, competition) and horizontal collectivism (belonging to a group, interdependence). The Azerbaijani sample showed higher levels of horizontal individualism (being unique, different from others) and vertical collectivism (subordinating one’s interests to those of the group). We also investigated the associations between cultural values and emotional expression (DRAI by D.Matsumoto). Horizontal individualism in Azerbaijan was associated with simulation of emotions (amplification of behavioral expressions of emotions) (r = 0,15). Horizontal collectivism in the Russian sample was associated with open expression of emotions (r = 0,23). Vertical collectivism in Azerbaijan was correlated with hiding emotions (r = 0,19).

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Ekimchik O.A., Kryukova T.L. Dyadic Coping in Russian couples: Psychometric research of the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI) by G.Bodenmann

This paper presents examination of a new instrument – the Russian version of The Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI), used among the Russian sample for the first time. Specifically, the DCI measures partners’ perceptions of their own (Self) and their partners’ behaviors (Partner) when facing individual stressors, and partners’ common coping behaviors when facing common stressors (Common). The study investigating the psychometric properties of DCI with data from 165 Russian couples (N = 329 individuals) are presented. Dyadic coping includes both a person`s attempt to reduce the stress of their partner and a common endeavor between couples to deal with external stress that affects the relationship. Quite a lot of studies reveal relevant links between the scales of dyadic coping and family functioning. DCI assesses how couples interact in everyday difficult situations, informing each other about stressful events and their experiences; how they support each other when facing individual (e.g., workload) and common (e.g., parenting) stressors. The connections of DCI scales with the indicators of the relationships` the duration in the pair and the degree of their intimacy are discussed. Results further reveal good construct validity of the DCI test scores. They show the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for partners, indicating convergent validity, and discriminate validity. It is concluded that the DCI is a reliable for measuring Russian couples’ coping behaviors.

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Samokhvalova A.G. Sociocultural determination of communicative difficulties of modern children and adolescents

The problem of the emergence and overcoming of communicative difficulties of children and adolescents is viewed from the position of sociocultural determination of these processes. Micro-factors of the emergence of communication difficulties are revealed, related to the impact of the nearest social environment on the development of the communicative sphere of the child's personality; meso-factors associated with the influence of the social conditions of the child's life on the ontogeny of communication; macro-factors associated with the impact of ethnos, culture, religion, mentality on the patterns of communicative behavior of the younger generation. An algorithm for overcoming the communicative difficulties in a multicultural space is presented by the subject, including a subjective sense of the obstacle in communication, the emergence of motivation to overcome communicative difficulties, the design and testing of new patterns of communication, reflection. The author describes constructive (pride, self-esteem, self-affirmation, nonconformity, the search for social support, differentiation of social contacts, etc.) and destructive markers of overcoming behavior (aggressiveness, demonstrativeness, sensitivity, frustration of social expectations, etc.), which are equally important for development child as the subject of communication. Based on the analysis of 250 single cases of communicative development of preschool, junior school and adolescent children, mechanisms for overcoming communicative difficulties of children and adolescents were identified, based on social comparison, reflection of communicative experience, combating individual deficiencies, striving for self-affirmation, internalization of communicative knowledge, manifestation of communicative activity, creativity, as well as their age specificity. A conclusion is made about the need for targeted psychological and pedagogical assistance to an adult in the process of comprehension and overcoming of actual communicative difficulties by the child; based on the results of parents' questionnaires, teachers and psychologists, typical errors of adults by interacting with children and adolescents experiencing various communicative difficulties, are revealed.

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Dubashevskaya E.A. Features of self-relationship and relationships with others in people with impaired vision

The study of the characteristics of self-relations and interpersonal relationships between people with visual impairment in the context of joint activities is due to the growing increase in people's disability, as well as a significant lack of research on this topic. This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed at studying the characteristics of self-relationships and interpersonal relationships in the context of joint activities of people with sensory impairments. The obtained results testify to statistically significant differences in the types of interpersonal relations according to T. Liri's method in women with impaired vision and women without disturbing the visual function on the scales of authoritarian, suspicious and subordinate type. Among men, differences in the dominant and selfish type of interpersonal relationships were revealed. The study of self-relations by the technique of S.R. Panteleeva identified the differences between blind and sighted women in the categories of self-guidance and self-interest. Among the groups of men, statistically significant differences were obtained according to the scales of autosympathy, the expected relationship from others, self-interest, self-confidence. The hardware method "Arka" for investigating the joint activity of small groups A.S Chernyshev revealed statistical significant differences in scales: the time spent the independence of the group, the degree of implementation of the instructions. The features of joint activities in groups of blind people differ significantly from the joint activities of sighted people, namely, the nature of the group's independence, the degree of implementation of the requirements of instructions, discussion and cooperation, as well as in relation to the activities performed. People with sensory impairments perceive the collection of the "Arch" as a way of realizing their own capabilities; sighted people have a pronounced playful aspect in relation to the Arka collection. Categories of relationships, self-relations and interpersonal relationships are an important component of the successful functioning of blind people in society.

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Kornilova T.V, Zirenko M.S, Guseynova R.D. Cross-cultural validation of the brief measure of Big-Five personality traits (TIPI): Russian and Azerbaijani student samples

This paper provides the results of validation of an extremely brief measure of Big Five personality traits – Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) – in Russian and Azerbaijani students. 553 students participated in the study: 202 students from Moscow, Russia, and 351 students from Baku, Azerbaijan (138 students studying in Russian and tested in Russian, and 213 students studying and tested in Azerbaijani language). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis shows good configural and partial measurement invariance of the Inventory in Russian and Azerbaijani languages. Good fit indices for all groups were obtained when 9 out of 10 items were included in the model, excluding one item for “agreeableness”. The findings also depict similar and culturally specific correlations between Big Five personality traits in two cultural samples. In particular, scores on all factors obtained from Russian men and women did not differ significantly from those in Azerbaijani men and women tested in Russian language. When the scores of Russian men and women were compared to the scores of Azerbaijani men and women tested in Azerbaijani language, Russian men and women showed higher disagreement while Azerbaijani men and women showed higher conscientiousness. Intercorrelations’ analysis revealed negative correlations between extraversion and emotional stability on both Azerbaijani groups whereas on Russian group extraversion correlated positively with openness.

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Rzhanova I.E., Alekseeva O.S. Differences in values between men and women

The results of values comparison of men and women on Russian sample are presented. A large number of studies have shown that men and women have different values structure. Men usually prefer such values as Power, Stimulation and Achievement, while women prefer Universalism and Benevolence. There were no gender differences in Security, Conformity, Tradition, Hedonism and Self-direction. 466 people have participated in this study: 289 (men -  41%, women -  59%, average age 49,5 years) were from parents cohort  and 177 (men - 40%, women - 60%, average age 23,3 years) from children cohort. We used Portrait Values Questionnaire to estimate values structure and we found out gender and cohort differences in value hierarchy of our participants. The most important value for older women was Security; Benevolence was on the first place for older men. For young men and women the most important value was Self-direction. T-analysis and Cohen's d were used to compare value structure of men and women. Women from older cohort had higher scores for Security and Universalism, men from older cohort had higher score for Stimulation. In cohort of young people we found out only one significant difference in values: young women had higher scores for Security.

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Sidorenkov A.V., Shipitko O.Yu., Obukhova Yu.V. Modern researches of the conflicts in the field of small groups in Russian psychology

The review of modern domestic scientific publications devoted to the study of conflicts in the field of small groups was carried out. The analysis of 28 scientific articles (7 – information-analytical, 19 – empirical and 2 – methodical) published in 21 Russian journals on psychology from 2000 to 2016 is shown. The analysis of the articles is made according to the following sections: the genre of publications, the type of studied groups, the research methods and methods, the fields and topics of the study. It is established that the greatest attention was paid to the authors of publications interpersonal conflict, and the most studied (in terms of the number of works) topics were the reasons for its appearance and the styles of behavior of individuals in such a conflict. The study of intergroup, group (between group and individual) and microgroup (between the informal subgroup and individual) conflict has isolated cases, and the conflict between informal subgroups in the group and between the group and the subgroup has not been considered at all. At the level of intergroup conflict, only the topic of perception and understanding of the conflict was considered, and at the level of group and micro-group conflict – types. In fact, there is no research on the relationship between different levels of conflict: between interpersonal and group, between interpersonal and intergroup, etc. In publications, there is very rarely a typological approach to understanding the conflict. The object of empirical research was mainly production and educational small groups, and the data were collected using various methods and techniques, among which the questionnaires were most often used.

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Tkachenko D.P. A new vector in the trajectory of the socialization of modern adolescents in the context of the social and economic crisis of the Russian society

The concepts of "trajectory" and "vector" are examined with reference to the study of the features of the socialization of modern children and adolescents. Using the notions of the normative and crisis vector of socialization, highlighted the main directions of this process, which are realized within the framework of a modern transitive society. It emphasizes the relevance of research on the current orientation of socialization, taking into account the growing processes of globalization and informatization. Based on the notion of a new format of interpersonal and intergenerational connections, discussed the issue of searching for new criteria for the identification of generations in the context of increased transitivity. In this vein, a comparison is made between the formation of identities within a single age by the example of groups of children and adolescents from megacities and small towns (villages). Comparing the processes of individualization and focus on reference groups and generally accepted values ​​of society, the problem of understanding the productivity of socialization is touched upon. In this vein, the specific personal dispositions necessary for effective interaction under conditions of uncertainty and the absence of a stable value system are considered. The question is raised about the possibility of a conflict between these dispositions of the individual and the demands of society, and, as a consequence, the formation of a crisis vector of socialization. Also presented the results of the study - comparing three groups of adolescents of the same age with different periods of admission to the Humanitarian College of the RSUH. Based on this, the profile of the Crisis Group of Adolescents is described. This is a group of students who entered the first year in 2016-17 after the social and economic crisis of Russian society in 2014-15. It compares with adolescents between 2013-14 and 2014-15 of admission, classified as Stable and Transitional Groups, respectively. As a result of this comparative analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the formation of a new image of the modern generation that is oriented toward the processes of individualization in the context of the socially-economic crisis of Russian society.

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Martsinkovskaya T.D., Orestova V.R. The concept of P.Ya.Galperin in the context of modern methodology

The article is devoted to the concept of an outstanding Soviet psychologist, Petr Yakovlevich Galperin, in the context of modern methodology. The need to preserve the continuity of psychological knowledge, the careful combination of the past and the present science, is emphasized, but the need to resort to classical concepts in a new vein is in the light of the challenges facing psychology today. It is revealed, as in the light of the urgent tasks facing modern psychological science, we can take a fresh look at the legacy of P.Ya.Galperin. The analysis of the concept of orienting activity in relation to such problems of the modern world as its multiplicity, variability and uncertainty is given. It is shown as an idea of the subject of psychology as an orientation activity that can be revealed in a new way in the study of the transitivity of the modern world. An analysis is made of the possibilities that the use of the P.Ya.Galperin approach to the image problem for studies of construction, the construction of the image of the world and the image of the self, identity in the modern changing world. The approach of the classic to the understanding of needs, experiences, will and its relevance is shown in the light of solving the problem of personal orientation in complex life situations in an era of transitivity. Attention is drawn to how ideas about orienting activity can be used to expand the possibility of studying coping strategies and applied to the understanding of the unconscious. The question is raised about the need to understand the connection of psychology with other fields of knowledge about man in transitivity studies and, in this connection, interdisciplinarity in the approach of P.Ya.Galperin is revealed and highly appreciated. The interdisciplinarity and multiparadigmality of modern science is underlined, which manifests itself in the emergence of new categories that can not be included in the old grid, as well as new relationships between categories. An estimation of P.Ya.Galperin's approach from the point of view of tendencies of modern methodology is given.

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Izotova E.I. Sociocultural variation of model of emotional development at children's and teenage age

Results of a research of emotional development of children and teenagers and also designing of a sociocultural variation of model of emotional development, representative for these age categories are presented in article. It was shown that emotional development at children's and teenage age is carried out in three interconnected zones and has three components – cognitive, affective and expressive, that allowed to design aprioristic model of emotional development and empirically to prove it (N = 326). As a result of empirical justifications it is confirmed that the cognitive component integrates concepts of emotions of the person, perception and understanding of emotional information along with verbalization of the emotional phenomena; the affective component is defined by a threshold of reaction and a modality of experiences in combination with empathy of the personality; the expressive component is characterized by various forms of emotional reaction.The concept of the sociocultural standard of the experience and expression of emotions including and tools of assessment of its influence on emotional behavior of the personality is defined. Distinctions of sociocultural standards for three ethnocultural subselections having specifics of scenarios of emotional behavior are designated. Three types of the standard are allocated: stimulating expressional behavior; tabooing intensive expression of emotions; the setting flexible "floating" mode of emotional regulation proceeding from the purposes of a relevant social situation. In article results of the mediated influence of the sociocultural standard on an involuntary expression and also on updating of mechanisms of any expression of emotions at the children and teenagers belonging to different ethnocultural groups are illustrated. As a result of the statistical analysis verification of aprioristic model of emotional development (its sociocultural variation) is carried out, it is transferred to the status of well-founded model with a secondary factor.

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