Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

 


Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya

Journal Editorial Board
 

 Ananyev Readings [Special issue]

 

The problem of the personality psychology in contemporary complex and multidimensional world is becoming more and more recent and significant, intersecting other areas of psychological science. Therefore, we would like to submit in this issue the articles that are written on the basis of speeches and discussions in October 2016 at the St. Petersburg State University at the Ananyev Readings. The main trends in the development of personality psychology, the problems of the narrative approach, new in psychology, and the problems of applied aspects of psychology are discussed in this issue.

Contents

Grishina N.V., Kostromina S.N. Personality psychology: rethinking traditional approaches in context challenges of modern realit

In the XXI century the reality changes are becoming new challenges in psychological science. These changes initiate reconsideration of the current representations, content and core concepts of even such traditional scientific fields as psychology of personality. The review of the subject of the most relevant scientific events of 2016 (31 World psychological congress, 2 World conference of personality, 18 European conference of personality) revealed that the major part of the studies is implemented in a framework of structural and functional approaches. Such studies mainly pay attention to personality traits, working on methodological solutions and personality evaluation measures. It takes place in spite of new directions appearing such as neurobiological investigation of personality, behavioral genetics, daily life learning, as well as the increase of quality research. However, there is a tendency towards a new look on well-known traditional approaches: both core concepts of psychology of personality and its methodological basis. This affirms that there is an urgent need in contemporary psychology of personality. The analysis of publications in Russian leading psychological magazines also demonstrates the prevalence of the studies based on structural and functional approaches. At the same time no decrease of the interest in theoretic discussion of the concept of personality is observed. Psychology of XXI century claims for a new approach, especially in the case of psychology of personality in Russian ("a changing person in a changing world") and foreign ("exploration of a real person in the real world") scientific societies. As a consequence in Russian psychology there is a shift of interest to the field of human investigation in the space of challenges in uncertain and complicated world. This is considered to be an essential aim of psychological science. Working on a concept base in the context of reality challenges may be a promising development direction of contemporary psychology of personality.

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Martsinkovskaya T.D., Turusheva Yu.B. Narrative as methodology, investigating the personality in transitive word

The concept of social - psychological transitivity connected with multiplicity, uncertainty and variability reveals. Communication of social and psychological aspects of transitivity is shown. It is proved the necessity of development new categorical system in psychology, based on network not matrix principle. An analogy between uncertainty in humanitarian and natural sciences is shown. Fruitfulness of use of the concept of psychological chronotope for the psychology of the personality in the transitive world is proved. The complex structure of a psychological chronotope opens a ratio between social and personal spaces and times. The analysis of possible options of development of the personality corresponds not only with three spatial coordinates, but also to three times. It is offered to allocate the small chronotope characterizing the separate periods of people’s life in a big spatial temporary continuum of a chronotope of life. Positive and negative value of heterochrony is shown. Importance of harmony between objective and subjective aspects of a psychological chronotope which is possible in one social (subcultural) group of people presented in the form of social network is proved. The concept of an internal form of a psychological chronotope reveals, the role of “de-familiarization", an exit out of limits of own life which helps to understand sense of the existence is shown. The leading role of an autobiographical narrative in studying of the personality and in the course of a reflection by people the sense of the life is proved. Various approaches to understanding of a narrative and its communication with "an identity trauma", personal crisis and loss/finding of sense are given. Is shown that it is in language takes place a final formation of sense, and the new semantic structure leads to reorganization of the personality. Though the narrative narrates about unique experience, it is always directed to the addressee, allowing "to enter" personal sense in the common cultural field. It is proved that development of a narrative form allows the person to understand that uncertainty is a part of our life and to be ready to an uncertainty challenges.

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Zaitseva J.E. Strategies of identity processes and identity styles in autobiographical Self-Narratives

Autobiographical Self-Narrative is studied as a basic social-cultural and cognitive instrument of identity construction. We consider identity construction strategy as a scheme of global temporal coherence of life events in the frame of a personal sense of agency and its meaning-constructive attribution to personal motives, values, life style or traits of a narrator. Empirical-based evidence of gender/age, generation membership, social-cultural context and discursive situation (prescription of narrator’s time perspective: the story about the past; stories about the past and the future; the story about the past and the present from the future perspective), effecting the choice of identity construction strategy, are given. Research sample of 62 autobiographies of three generation members:  BB (1943-1963), X (1964-1983), Y (1984 – 2003), age 13-80, from the (auto)biography’s corpus, collected by Biographical Archive of The Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science was empirically studied. Sample includes three types of autobiographical narratives: (1) free style autobiographical essays (mostly collected in 1990th); (2) two thematic self-narrative «My life story» and «My life in N years» (N was defined by participant), collected in 2000th; 3) thematic self-narrative «My life story narrated in 2026», collected in 2016. In addition, we analyzed 43 biographical interviews (collected in 2016), 43 autobiographical essays «Brief story of my life» (20 min, A4 paper) and ISI-5 identity style score  of 25 people (10 m, 15 f), age 18– 25 (generation Y: 1991–99) and 18 people (4 male, 14 female) age 35–55 (generation X:1961–81). Metaphorical representation of time perspective was also measures by Likert scale, set of 16 words semantically correspondent to subjective experience of the “time in my life”; N=454, age 17 до 62: 25% - emerging adults; 54,4% - early adulthood; 18,3% - middle adulthood; 2,4% - late adulthood (83% - female; 13% - male). Objective: (1) Global temporal narrative coherence of autobiographical Self-Narrative; (2) Cognitive schemas of life-course time perspective mental representation, its metaphorical description and underlying image schemas; and (3) Self-Defining memory and Life Goals perspectives integration in autobiographic Self-Narratives are analyzed as effected by different generation membership/ age group/ identity style of narrator and discursive pattern of life story telling. Quantitative analyze methods: MANOVA, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearmen Rs correlations, H- Kruskal–Wallis test, IBM SPSS Statistics 21. Qualitative analyze methods: type of narrative coherence, scored by Allé’s modified coding system; discursive markers of autobiographical time; personal valuations in self-defining memories and future time perspective, scored independently by 4 coders. Thematic type of narrative coherence in autobiographical Self-Narrative is discovered more often in texts of generation BB than X or Y; it increases with age; and moving the narrator’ position into the future helps to coordinate life events and identity in thematic coherence. We identify discursive markers for personal (phenomenological) and social (cultural, historical) chorography in autobiographical time synthesis in Self-Narratives of different narrative coherence types. Metaphoric representation of life-course time in different age groups is discovered and discussed. Specifics of Self-Defining memory and Life Goals integration in Self-Narratives of people of different age and identity stiles are considered. Identity processes, its styles, and strategies in post-modern culture are questioned and discussed. Autobiographical Self-Narrative as an instrument of identity construction was explored as a paradigm for existential, cultural-historical, cognitive and relational psychology studies.

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Avanesyan M.O. Time organization in autobiographical narrative

Autobiographical time is usually regarded as one of the structure-forming components of the life-story. The aim of this study was to identify the main ways of organizing time in the short autobiographies. We analyzed the autobiographies of 39 people aged 17 to 52 years old. Empirical evidence has shown that the different modalities of time (past, present, future) do not exist separately from each other, but are merged to provide time perspective. The past is linked with the present by means of open time periods and recurring events, unfulfilled alternative history of life ("if I then, that ...." "If not, then ..."), the movement of the starting point from past into the present. The active presence of "I" of the author, which appears in explanations, evaluations, breaking of the chronological sequence of events and etc., strengthens the current modality of the present. The present and future are linked with the past as its consequences. The future is connected with present due to the contrast principle ("other" than the present) or, alternatively, through the extension of the present to the future state (status quo). It is hypothesized that the particular representation of events in the autobiographical text can influence the perception of events the reader (acceleration or stretching of the passage of time). Cultural cognitive scheme "past-present-future" is the basis for life segmentation, but the reverse is also important as the process of integration of the various components of life experience in a holistic representation of life.

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Shchukina M.A. Internal picture of self-development experience

The article is made in the framework of a new independent field of psychological science and practice — psychology of self-development, designed to unleash human potential for self-organization and self-governance with the help of the available mental resources for the disclosure and realization of their personal and intellectual potential. This is described a study that is dedicated to the reconstruction of the internal picture of the stages of the living experience of self-development. It is noted the failure to realize the potential of qualitative methods of contemporary psychological science to recreate the system of ideas of personality about himself in the process of self-managed change from the inside this process. The qualitative analysis of self-description by respondents (n=35) experience self — conscious and purposeful construction or change "I" in life was presented. Inner picture of the organization and implementation work was reconstructed. The basic stages of process of self-development were distinguished: 1) awareness and negative evaluation of the initial situation in the system "I" or "I'm in a situation" (problem situation); 2) the state of liminality: frontier of the negative emotions, the awareness of the impossibility to put up with them; 3) decision-making about self-transformation, accompanied by awareness of the direction and sense of the coming changes; 4) development of an action plan — selection of techniques and tools for self-change; 5) implementation of the developed plan, indicating the importance of the support of the nearest social environment, elements of internal struggle and efforts to overcome it and consistent implementation of the project of self-change; 6) evaluating the results of self-development with a predominance of ascertaining positive changes; 7) the resource of experience for his future life. The phenomenological illustration of the above-mentioned stages of the protocols of the respondents was presented.

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Zinovyeva E.V., Dvornikova T.A. Personal development of psychology consultant: Narrative as a method of research

The history of development the issue about the consultant personality is described, the existing directions of empirical research in Russian and non-Russian psychology are presented. It is stated that the concept of "effective consultant" is domineering in contemporary psychology; it is based on identifying various personality traits that contribute to effective professional activity. It is noted that the main limitation of existing theory and research is the lack of systematization of identified personality qualities, static look at the consultant identity, lack of understanding of how it is formed and develops. In the article, a special attention is paid to the analysis of the models and research of consultant personality development. General conclusion is made that the existing works use mainly quantitative approach to the data collection and description, as for the consultant identity, so for its development. As an alternative for the study and description of the consultant individuality, it is proposed to use the narrative method, which gives an insight into the inner world of the person, allows seeing formation of personal meanings system, tracing its transformation over time. The source of the narrative may be a personal diary of the consultant which is kept during the training, and which describes the experience of meetings with the clients. The article presents a specific method for obtaining a narrative, so called “tutorial diary”, as well as its purposes and practice of application. Narrative methodologies are shown to be very promising to study the process characteristics that reflect the course of consultant’s development. In conclusion, the need for discussion and understanding of issues related to the consultant personality and its development is pointed out.

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Shneider L.B., Symanyuk V.V. User in information environment: digital identity today

The author's structural-content model of a digital identity with the identification of its main characteristics and levels is presented.We studied the immersion of users in the Internet space with the help of empirical methods, revealed the motivational, procedural and resulting aspects of the Internet space. We have identified the constituent elements (subjective, dialogical, hypertext and technological-digital as, respectively, auto-, altero-, inform- and Internet-centric). We also determined the level characteristics (low, medium, high) of a digital identity among students in Moscow universities. It is established that all indicators of the Internet perception are within the normative values, and three components of a digital identity have low values. A higher level is inherent in the technological and digital components. At the same time, a decrease in the importance of communication on the Internet and an increase in the indices of the Internet animation were found. Respondents, in general, highly appreciate the positive features of the Internet, distinguishing a considerable number of drawbacks. The Internet has a special significance in the search for information. In this search behavior on the Web is chaotic, not purposeful.We have identified a high level of correlation between the time spent in the network, communication on the Internet and the altered state of consciousness. The subjective side of what happens to an individual on the Internet (the altered state of consciousness, the perception of the Internet as the best, escape from reality), shows more interconnections in the field of mentally resulting effects than objective indicators (time and communication).Social identity relates to the perception of the Internet as the best pastime. Immersion in the network space causes significant personal changes in social identification, increasing the values of the social identity indicator.

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Pavlova N.D.,Grebenschikova T.A. Intent-analysis of the post-eventual discourse on the Internet

The paper is focused on the analysis of the post-eventual discourse functioning over the Russian Internet zone. The post-eventual discourse is considered as response to events and to the messages related to them. The empirical base consisted of the comments and discussions published on the popular news and entertainment websites in 2013-2015. The websites were selected according to its comments related to the actual topics of the World’s and Russian politics and the moderation providing absence of obscene lexis. The Intent-analysis was applied as the main method for reconstruction the actual speech intentions of speakers. The goal of the study was the comparison between news and post-eventual discourses,  including evaluation of the speech intentions’ alteration. The study shows the transformation of speech intentional structure from the neutral informative and analytical intentions over the news discourse to the negative intentions such as over the post-eventual discourse. The negative intentions manifested in the post-eventual discourse includes categories of distancing  (for instance, «to reveal discontent», «to show malevolence», «to demonstrate resentment») and dialogical categories  (such as «to object», «to demonstrate sarcasm», «to humiliate  speaker»).  The speech intention of neutral estimation (such as «to explain», «to share opinion», «to suggest») and positive estimation (such as «to defend», «to stress positive treats», «to justify») reveal in the post-eventual discourse rarely. The original referential objects of the news discourse are changing: they could be generalized, concretized and transductively replaced.

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Koroleva N.A., Sergienko E.A. Genesis of the relation between the theory of mind and symbolic functions of preschoolers

The results of the study of the interrelation between Theory of Mind and symbolic functions at the critical stage of their development - at preschool age - are presented. The hypothesis of coherence in the development of these abilities is checked. The study of symbolic functions was carried out within the framework of play and drawing. To this end, methods embracing tasks of varying complexity, allowing a comprehensive assessment of this ability at different stages of development, including both use and understanding of the symbolic means have been developed and tested.  A stage of development of the theory of mind has been estimated by means of two sets of tasks that cover it main components (understanding of false beliefs, emotions and their causes, visual perspective, mental states and their external manifestations): the test "The Theory of Mind for Children" by Sergienko and Lebedeva; the battery of tasks "The Theory of Mind" by Hutchins at all.  We compare information about the development of these abilities with indicators of children intellectual development (WPPSI – Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence). The study involved 60 children of two age groups 3-4 years and 5-6 years, with all children having intelligence quotient about the average level of Wexler scale. It was shown that at different stages of ontogeny the symbolic function changes the character of the connection with Theory of Mind, at the same time, heterochrony was observed in the development of individual components of symbolic functions (understanding and using) in the play and drawing. Contribution of psychometric intellect to the development of the both abilities decreases with age.

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Chernov D.N. Psychogenetic study of language competence’s structure

The aim of research is study of structure of interrelations between some language abilities in younger school age. The classical method of twins is used. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations between the subtests of the Heidelberg test of language development are estimated. The previously obtained results of studying of the role of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of individual differences in language characteristics are used. The sample is 35 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs aged between 7 and 8 years 11 months; among them – 36 pairs of girls and 32 pairs of boys. The control sample consisted of 53 children of the same age; among them – 26 girls and 27 boys. The structure of phenotypic correlations indicates that language skills related to the grammar, morphology, syntax, semantics spheres constitute a relatively common "language" factor named language competence. Abilities related to visual-figurative thinking, understanding and using a language for pragmatic purposes, poorly correlate with each other and other Heidelberg test’s subtests. They are manifestations of other spheres of personality, indirectly related to language. The pattern of correlations reproduced on the twins’ sample and sample of the single born children. There are found that significant correlations between Heidelberg test’s subtests, on average, 40% are attributable to common genetic influences. The sixth part of the covariation of language competence’s characteristics is explained by environmental (mainly – shared) effects. The results are important to clarify the etiology of the structure of language characteristics in native Russian speakers.

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Chertkova Y.D., Egorova M.S., Fominykh A.Ya. Alekseeva O.S. Authoritarianism in personality traits structure

The relationship of authoritarianism and personality traits was examined on a sample of 401 people (18–78 years (M = 26,58, SD = 12,91); 55,9 % – women). For the assessment of authoritarianism it was used a shortened questionnaire of right-wing authoritarianism of B.Altermeyer (RWA), adapted by the authors of the study. The questionnaire allows to measure three characteristics: authoritarian submission and aggression, conventionalism and general authoritarianism. For the assessment of dispositional personality traits there was used Russian version of the HEXACO-PI-R questionary, having 6 scales - Honesty / Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience. Authoritarianism varies nonlinearly with age and reaches the highest score in the group 60+ years. Authoritarianism in men is higher than in women, the effect size (Cohen's d) is in the range of 0,30 and 0,43 for different characteristics. Authoritarianism is associated with the position of the respondent in the parents family: single children have a lower authoritarianism than those who have siblings. However, neither the number of children in the family nor birth order are related with authoritarianism. The analysis of the relationship of authoritarianism and dispositional personality traits shows that the authoritarian submission and aggression have significant relationships with low Openness to experience (r = –0,25), low Emotionality (r = –0,22), Extraversion (r = 0,23), Agreeableness, (r = 0,19) and Conscientiousness (r = 0,13); conventionalism  - with Consciousness (r = 0,24), Extraversion (r = 0,18) and the Honesty / Humility (r = 0,12).

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Mitina O.V., Pluzhnikov I.V. An Buridan’s ass between a rock and a hard place: operationalization and measure of ambivalence in humanities. Part 2

This article is the second part of the research dedicated to the problem of operationalization and estimation ambivalence in quantitative researches that was published in the previous issue. Ambivalence is defined as a phenomenon when a subject has two different polar estimates towards an object or a situation at the same time. In the first part different methods of ambivalence assessment were mentioned. Ambivalence was represented as an integral index that can be calculated basing on the values of antonymous attitudes (concurrent and dominant). However simplicity of this approach means loss of information, discrepancy between the model and intuitive understanding of ambivalence with different proportions of concurrent and dominant attitudes. Moreover, in most situations a researcher is not interesting in ambivalence itself but in phenomenology of it such as it’s influence in personal traits or possibility of it to mediate or transform correlation between different variables. The study of such phenomena is more informative and full if both variables that represent antonymous attitudes are used as determinants. Furthermore, this approach is applicable not only for linear but also for complex nonlinear and multiplicative determination. This approach to the operationalizing of ambivalence is called functional. To wrap it up, one more approach is relevant in the situations when unipolar scales of semantic differential which have antonymous pairs are used. In this situation, we suggest calculating joint coefficients of correlation between all pairs of the variables and defining significant negative correlation coefficients as parameters that show absence of ambivalence.

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