Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

 


Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya

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The everyday life psychology [Special issue]

This issue is devoted to a new interdisciplinary field, which has been actively developed in the last few years by psychological science. At the same time, it should be noted that today psychology is still lagging behind other areas of knowledge in understanding the subject and structuring the field of everyday life psychology. On the solution of this problem the issue is directed.

It presents articles that examine the psychology of everyday life from different angles. This is a theoretical analysis of the problem of everyday life, actualization of interest to this scientific problem in ​​psychology, and the analysis of the phenomenology of everyday life in sports and cinema, the representation of everyday life in the self-regulation of mental states. The problem of everyday life is also considered in the context of social imaginary, cultural capital and the aesthetic paradigm, which, on the whole, proves the connection between everyday life and the general tendency towards individualization and the creation of an individual life style, life-creation which is associated with everyday creativity.

These works also prove that, despite the difference in positions, on the whole, all authors come to the conclusion that everyday life does not minimize the individuality and creative activity of people, but, on the contrary, directs and structures the manifestations of individual creativity. And this shows the possibility of further development of the psychology of everyday life as a field of science and a sphere of life and life creation.

 

Contents

Martsinkovskaya T.D. Psychology of everyday life: an oxymoron or a new trend in psychology

The concepts and the roots of the appearance of the psychology of everyday life are considered. The necessity of comprehension and structuring of its subject and field of research within the framework of psychological science is proved. It is analyzed paradoxically and inconsistency of the term psychology of everyday life, connected with its synthesis with various contexts of modern psychology. Nowadays it is difficult to separate the research field of psychology of everyday life from other spheres of psychological science. Paradoxically also is the fact that the everyday life from the point of view of psychology is connected with the minimization of individuality and personal activity. It is seemed that for psychology is more important the research of critical and deviant variants of development, rather than everyday behavior. The concept of liquid transitivity is presented,  the role of everyday life in understanding the world and self-images in the situation of crisis (social and personal) and small but constant changes in norms, values and standards of the surrounding world is shown. In situations of cardinal transformations (for example, at the beginning of the ХХ and XXI centuries), people think about the sense of life and about self-existence rather than about everyday life. Moreover, for a large group of people, it is the emotions connected with crisis that gave the fullness of life and filled it with sense.  Therefore, for a large group of artists and scientists, everyday life was not of interest for study, it was more important to realize how to overcome its pressure. In the situation of liquid transitivity from the point of view of psychology, the everyday life can be considered as a peculiar strategy of coping with the situation of plurality and variability of contexts. This in many ways is the reason for the actualization of interest to this field of psychology. Very important is the fact that everyday life provides an opportunity to restore the vital everyday identity and integrity of the life span. Everyday life also gives an opportunity to build a personal everyday life, fenced off from the general chaos of the environment. The role of the aesthetic paradigm and cultural capital in the individualization of everyday life and the emergence of individual everyday life, reflecting the personal characteristics of people is shown.

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Grishina N.V. Everyday Behavior: Life Style, Everyday Creativity and Life Design

Various social and humanitarian disciplines are increasingly turning to psychological phenomenology in a development of everyday life’s topics. The developing field of psychology of everyday life in domestic science has a task of highlighting psychological perspective in studying of everyday life. A multidimensionality of world of modern man is expressed in the plurality of his/her existence contexts. Everyday life refers to a life context of human existence. In psychology its study is represented by different concepts aimed at a holistic description of person’s existence in a world. Everyday life is realized in different ways of existence and different life strategies of subject, including adaptive strategies, coping strategies, strategies of life creation. The degree of expression of individual strategies and their correlation in a daily behavior of a person provide a unique personal life style. The concept of life style being introduced into psychology by Adler as an explanatory concept of what happens to a person throughout his life, further develops in a number of concepts - types of life, life strategies, life orientations, etc., which are regarded as relatively stable characteristics of human behavior, determined by his/her personal characteristics. Modern reality changes a space of person's daily life by making demands to his/her ability to live in a changing world. Consequently, in modern psychology a special attention is paid to flexible ways of responding to challenges of reality. In this connection, the concept of everyday creativity is developed as characteristic of everyday life and people's activity. Personal characteristics associated with demonstration of everyday creativity are described in literature as well as the factors affecting it. Data about a positive impact of everyday creativity on personality, his/her psychological well-being, health, etc. are given. In general, everyday creativity is seen as having value for survival as a form of life design.

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Guseltseva M.S. A volatile everyday life and ways to study the changes

The emergence of the psychology of the everyday life as a new research direction is due to three factors: the logic of the development of science, the challenges of a specific sociocultural situation, and the epistemological turn in the scientific community. The historical and methodological prerequisites of the psychology of everyday life are the emergence of anthropological optics, focusing on the phenomenon of man, on changes in his subjectivity, the dynamics of cultural movements and social groups, on the diversity of life styles in modern society. Sociocultural prerequisites are reduced to the general humanization of culture and the importance in psychology of its current transformations (leading trends). Epistemological prerequisites are the design of methodological approaches and research strategies that allow one to explore the interconversion of subjectivity and everyday life from the standpoint of growing diversity, uncertainty, and supercomplexity. Interest in the everyday life arises primarily where changes enter the subjective world of man, and the transformation of everyday norms becomes a matter of reflection. Shifts of everyday life are made imperceptibly both for the layman and for the researchers. The most effective means of analysis here is the ethnographic method, which acquires the status of transdisciplinary in the social knowledge. The study of everyday life is revealed as a transformation of the social reality, highlighting in it the leading socio-cultural tendencies; as an analysis of modernity from the standpoint of its heterogeneity and inconsistency. The strength of weak ties, the "soft power", the movement from the paradigm of conflict to solidarity, the civilizational trends in humanization and the global decline in violence are seen here as significant characteristics of everyday life. Modernity is mosaic and heterogeneous: this blanket unevenly covers all corners of the planet, there are enough holes in it that throughlooks traditional and archaic ways of life. The study of everyday life brings to the forefront the phenomenology of marginal behavior, combining the inconspicuous and extraordinary, routine and spontaneous, viewing diversity as the norm of life. To monitor the current transformations, it is necessary to change the old patterns of thinking, as well as a combination of different markers, to involve research strategies of related sciences.

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Fedunina N.Yu. Sports in psychology of everyday life

The article provides the analysis of the place of sports in the psychology of everyday life based on the theory of psychological evolution of personality of Pierre Janet and three levels of personality: bodily, social and historic. On the level of bodily unity sports involvement reflects current swift and cardinal changes on the level of body and dynamic organization of modern life. Decrease of physical activity and search of basic needs satisfaction, heightening of virtualization lead to changes in life space and new forms of body image, mind and body interaction and body involvement. On the level of social unity, sports become the means of social differentiation (gender, social, economic, moral). Sport activities are involved in construction of social and collective identity and become important parameter of participation in social life, of gaining one’s role and place in the society. Sports reflect and facilitate the development of basic democratic values of equality, unity, social inclusion despite superficial differences connected with health, demographic, social and even psychological characteristics. On the level of historic unity, unity in time, which is created via autobiography, sports become one of the prisms of viewing and understanding one’s life not only among elite sportsmen, but as a sense-provoking lens in everyday life as well.

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Orestova V.R. Cinema and psychology of everyday life

The problem of cinema in the psychology of everyday life is discussed. Cinema is seen in several aspects of the relationship with everyday life - as a way of crystallization in the work of art of a person's daily life, as part of everyday life, which includes watching movies and as a variant of the viewer's contact with the everyday life reflected in the cinema. The role of cinema in reflecting values ​​and the state of society, reflecting the changes that are taking place, and in restoring the integrity of the people's identity is shown. In the mainstream of the aesthetic paradigm, the importance of cinema is considered for the crystallization of various aspects of everyday life. Various facets of cinema are considered - entertainment, industry and art in their connection with everyday life. The tendencies in the development of modern Russian mass cinema and its role in building group identity are considered. In the context of the reflection of everyday life, the importance of author's cinema is emphasized. The role of the person of the creator, his relation to reality in the aesthetic experience, caused by the work of motion picture art, is stressed. It is emphasized that the work of art movies become when the everyday life depicted in them is permeated with the spirit and mood of the time, and the ordinary life of the heroes is intertwined in the historical era. The questions of perception of everyday life in cinema by the modern spectator are considered. It stresses the psychological and emotional significance of movies that affect the "life world" of the viewer, his subjective living space and his ideas about himself. The display of everyday life in contemporary Russian cinema is analyzed on the example of two paintings - "Dislike" by Andrei Zvyagintsev and "Arrhythmia" by Boris Khlebnikov. The significance of the language, the form of the work of cinema for perception and experience by the viewer of the film, for recreating the integrity of identity in the process of viewing or increasing internal disharmony is revealed. The significance of the personal "themes" of the viewer for the perception and experience of the film is considered. As a prospect for further research on the interaction of the form of the work, personal characteristics and "themes" of the viewer in the perception of everyday life in the cinema, an appeal to the concept of a psychological chronotope is suggested.

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Khoroshilov D.A., Mashkov D.S. «Social imaginary» in the psychological structure of the everyday life

The article views the psychology of the everyday life that originated in Austria-Hungary and Germany (S.Freud and the Alltagspsychologie tradition) and has not been much developed yet. The main issues in the design of modern studies of the everyday life are the psychological definition of the subject and the choice of suitable analysis methods. The traditional division the imaginary / real in social cognition does not work any more (the theme of the relationship between the image of the world and the real world in the Russian scientific school of social psychology founded by G.M.Andreeva). The study of the everyday life involves the introduction of a new category «social imaginary» or «imagination» that becomes a basis for the symbolic structures of social representations and collective emotions. It pays close attention to the French tradition (S.Moscovici, J.Lacan, K.Castoriadis, the Annals school) and the imaginary communities’ concept (B.Anderson). The recommended methods for study of the social imaginary in the everyday life are ethnography and field research. The innovative strategies of visual ethnography, nethnography and auto-ethnography make possible to reconstruct different life worlds and hidden forms of social cognition in public discourse. Presumably, these hidden forms of social cognition can be coping strategies with social changes and problems. The article demonstrates the results of a pilot ethnographic research in the field of the specific life world of the Moscow esoteric organization. The preliminary conclusion – esoteric practice is a cultural device of subjection in the post-Soviet society, which signifies personal and social problems, repressed by the culture of everyday life.

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Prokhorov A.O. Self-control of mental states in daily, ordinary activity of the person

The research is devoted to the study of everyday life person's mental states self-regulation. The theoretical basis for the study was the system-functional concept of mental states self-regulation, according to which states’ self-regulation is a three-level hierarchical organization based on the individual mental state (functional unit) mechanisms of regulation. The second level of self-regulation is associated with the formation of stable functional complexes that ensure the self-regulation of everyday human states: the prolonged actualization of "prescribed" states with certain parameters from the sign side, quality, intensity, duration, etc. in routine, repetitive situations and conditions of a person's daily life. The functional complex includes the most commonly used methods and techniques for regulating states. A higher level is the integral functional structure of regulation. The study used empirical methods of obtaining information: a freely constructed answer, a questionnaire, a conversation. Attended by 220 people (male and female), professional membership of the average age group. A separate study was devoted to the study of self-regulation of mental states in the daily cycle of everyday life. The study was conducted in two groups of subjects: 20 people in each group, ages 21–34. The first group is students; the second group is employees of a trading company. Subjects were asked to answer questions about negative mental states during the day (every hour) and ways of their regulation. As a result of the study, typical states and typical methods of self-regulation characteristic of everyday human activity were revealed: general and specific methods of regulating different modalities states, features of self-regulation in the daily cycle of life activity. The transient processes in the dynamics from positive to negative states, as well as the methods and techniques of self-control that support these processes.

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Sokolova E.T. Mentalization disorders in clinical and cultural Vygotsky’s paradigm

In the cultural situation of transitivity, the application of interdisciplinary methodology allows integrating concepts and methods of the allied sciences, a variety of description languages and interpretations of the studied phenomenon, opens for reinterpretations of those phenomena, which belong to the field of clinical psychology. In the article, which is offered to the reader, the subject of theoretical revision is the impairment of social cognition, which is well-known in the clinics of borderline personality disorders. The mental representation, or mentalization, as defined by the British psychoanalyst Peter Fonagy, is understood as a form of social cognition, which allows to perceive, imagine and emotionally relate, make sense and causality of what’s happening in a subjective world – of self and another person. Mentalization supposes integration of contextual factors, material and physical aspects of situation and behavior, as well as inner subjective feelings, beliefs, goals and intentional states as representative motives for a given behavior. In the perspective of the cultural-historical theory and methodology by L.S.Vygotsky a new interpretation is offered for the clinical phenomena of mentalization deficit, an understanding is given for transformation of its structure and functions as a consequence of the person’s loss of interpsychic social connections and disintegration of intrapsychic organization of consciousness, impairment of its systemic structure, narrowing and simplification of cross-functional bonds and intrapsychic "mythology". In the result of this double destruction of bonds, ontogenetically early and primitive forms of mentalization are "deflected", isolated and start holding a domineering position in psychic functioning. The process of mentalization regresses to its pre-categorical and cognitive-affective non-differentiated levels and structures (syncretic and complex organization), unfolding involuntarily and unconsciously, lacking meaningful coherence, symbolic mediation and focus for understanding the subjective world – of self and the Other. The unconscious substitution of the psychic picture of the inner world with impulsive actions, hypochondriac and narcissistic fixations, autistic pseudo-mentalization and manipulation is lacking the meaningful and sanguineous dialogue with the Other. The loss of social connections (interpsychic communication), without being mediated by the addressed to the Other speech-dialogue is interiorized into the inner "muteness" – the loss of not only understanding of others, but the interruption of meaningful inner and "worded" dialogue with the self, self-understanding.

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Karabanova O.A., Burmenskaya G.V., Zakharova E.I., Almazova O.V., Dolgikh A.G., Molchanov S.V., Sadovnikova T.Yu. Types of attitude to motherhood and the parental attitude among young woman in the period of entering into adulthood

The relevance of research of the conditions and factors of the development of the attitude to the mother's parental position in the period of adulthood is due to the growth of negative tendencies: the prevalence of deviant parenting, a decrease in the birth rate, and decrease in the prestige of motherhood. The results of an empirical study of the types of attitudes to motherhood among young woman at the stage of adulthood as well, as  the role of acceptance / rejection by their own mothers in childhood and adolescence are presented. The study involved 230 respondents aged 17 to 23 years. The projective technique "Uncompleted sentences" and R. Roner's questionnaire were used. The results obtained allowed us to distinguish five types of attitude to the motherhood: 1) priority and acceptance of the maternal role; 2) a positive attitude towards motherhood and delayed parenthood; 3) motherhood as a duty; 4) ambivalent attitude to motherhood and delayed parenthood; 5) rejection of motherhood and maternal role. A comparative analysis of the nature of the relationship with the mother in the context of the acceptance / rejection model (R. Roner) revealed statistically significant differences in all indicators of child-parent relations (acceptance, hostility, indifference, hidden rejection, total rejection), which confirmed the hypothesis of the relationship between the attitude toward motherhood and the parental position of young women and their experience of acceptance / rejection by own mother in childhood and adolescence. Mother’s acceptance creates an emotionally positive attitude to motherhood and a readiness for real family planning, while rejection is a high risk factor of negative attitude to the maternal role until the subsequent open total rejection contributes to the priority of choosing a professional career as opposed to motherhood.

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Knyazev E.B. Socio-cognitive characteristics of personality and behavior patterns of students with different expressiveness of obedience to authority

The problem of destructive obedience of person to a legitimate authority takes one of the leading places in social psychology. The path-breaker in the field of researches of obedience to authority – S. Milgram specified that when a person obeys, he falls into the special state of mind called agent. It appears that by definition of this state, Milgram has created a basis for the research of socio-cognitive characteristics of personality with different expressiveness of obedience. Taking in consideration the above, we have conducted a research where the main goal is revealing with different expressiveness of obedience to authority in the level of subjective control, attitudes of the motivational and need sphere and evaluating their interpersonal relations in connection with the actualization of their obedient behavior under the simulated conditions of interpersonal interaction. The total sample of the research is 72 people from different departments of Saratov State University. Of these, 30 people took part in the experiment. The research has revealed distinctions in socio-cognitive characteristics and behavior of personality with different level of expressiveness of obedience to authority that appear within interpersonal interaction. Particularly, students with low degree of expressiveness of obedience have a high level of internality and are more careful in the choice of people with whom they build friendly relations. They are armed with well-formed social installations on result, work, freedom and power. On the contrary, students with high level of expressiveness of obedience have lower level of internality and are less careful in building of friendship. Typically, they are armed with installations on process and altruism. Also, experiment has shown that in a situation of obedience to the authority, knowledge of willful deceit of authority that makes the purpose of activity of person unclear, in spite of strictly certain task and bans of the authority, is not able to release the person from psychological influence of obedience situation.

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Pyankova S.D., Zyrianova N.M., Baskaeva O.V. Russian preschoolers’ ideas of richness and poverty (1992–2010)

Preschoolers’ worldview was researched, in particular the range of children’s ideas of richness and poverty. The data obtained in the course of the structured interview was compared. Six-year-old children, who went to Moscow kindergartens in 1992–1998 (189 children; the first stage of the research) and in 2009–2010 (150 children; the second stage), were interviewed. The results of the third stage of the research (2015–2016) were not included into this paper and will be reviewed separately later.

The first stage of the research took place at the time of radical changes in the country. People tried to adjust to rapid, catastrophic changes in practically all areas of life. The second stage of the research took place in the period of relatively smooth social transformations; people adapted to the new life, resigned themselves to irreversibility of radical changes. How did the children take the changing world? How did they describe a rich man and a poor man, what were the preschoolers’ ideas of money, sources of wealth?

It is possible to come to the following conclusion as a result of the two research stages (in the periods with various transformations’ intensity and different situation in the society). As a rule, preschoolers are shielded from social problems in the grown-up world, which don’t considerably affect children’s minds and are not reflected in children’s perception and stories. Notwithstanding the tension in the society, associated with abnormally strong (compared to the preceding Soviet period) social stratification based on income, children don’t feel themselves deprived. The family, parents, people close to children create a kind of barrier, which acute social contradictions don’t pass through. Children stay happy notwithstanding any social and economic crises.

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Chertkova Yu.D., Egorova M.S., Parshikova O.V., Rzhanova I.E. Authoritarianism as compensatory trait

The relationship of authoritarianism and personality traits was analyzed in the study. The sample consisted of 401 respondents aged 18-78 years (M = 26,58, SD = of 12,91), 55,9% - women. General authoritarianism, as well as two it’s components (authoritarian submission and aggression; conventionalism) was assessed by the Brief questionnaire of authoritarianism (questionnaire of right-wing authoritarianism of B.Altemeyer, shortened and adapted by the authors). Personality traits associated with attribution of responsibility (locus of control, measures of Free Will and Determinism Plus scale), tolerance to uncertainty and life satisfaction were also considered in the study. Regression analysis suggested that predictors of authoritarianism are the socio-demographic indicators (gender and presence / absence of siblings) and some personality traits – the internality in the field of achievements, all three indicators of FAD plus (fatalism, free will and unpredictability of surrounding world) and life satisfaction. The level of subjective control correlated primarily with the conventionalism: the higher level of authoritarianism corresponded to the internal locus of control. It is shown that the relationship of authoritarianism with internality is partly due to the internality in family relations. Life satisfaction is associated positively with all indicators of authoritarianism. Obtained relationship of authoritarianism with internal locus of control and life satisfaction do not contradict the assumption of a compensatory function of authoritarianism. 

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Egorova M.S., Parshikova O.V. The structure of Honesty-Humility factor

The model of the six-factor personality structure is based on the results of lexical studies and assumes a hierarchical structure of personality traits in which the general level is represented by six broad factors including Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Consciousness and Openness to Experience. The HEXACO name was derived as an abbreviation formed from the initial letter of the names of the broad factors. We analyzed the psychometric features and the structure of Honesty-Humility. The sample of the study included 571 respondents (age 16–84 years, 58,5% – women). The sample that participated in the study of convergent validity included 1268 people (age 16–79 years, 65,4% – women). Respondents answered to the items of the HEXACO PI-R, adapted for the Russian population by the authors of the study. The results demonstrated a satisfactory level of consistency (α = 0,82); sex differences (women scores were slightly higher: for the total scale d = 0,24), and the increase of Honesty-Humility with age. Relationships of Honesty-Humility with the Dark triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy), confirms its convergent validity. When carrying out the exploratory factor analysis (the method of principal components with subsequent orthogonal and oblique rotation) a simple structure is obtained that confirms the hypothetical structure of the factor Honesty-Humility. When carrying out a confirmatory factor analysis, the obtained results do not contradict to the notions of the hierarchical organization of the factor and the existence of four relatively independent facets in its structure, but the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a number of relationships between the points belonging to different facets and between two facets.

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