Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

 


Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya

Journal Editorial Board
 

2018 Vol. 11 Issue 58 :: In Press

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Marutina T.M. Individual adaptability in a transitive society

The article deals with the concept of "individual adaptability", its significance in the behavior of people in the transitional period of society development, i.e. in the conditions of cataclysms, accompanied by uncertainty and unpredictability of the development of events. The differences between the concepts of adaptation, adaptability and adaptability are shown. The comparative analysis of theories of individual adaptability is given and an example of diagnostics of individual adaptability on eight scales is given: crisis, creativity, uncertainty, training, interpersonal relations, culture, physical resources, level of stress. Data are presented that suggest that adaptability as the ability of an individual to adapt to non-standard operating conditions is manifested in different spheres of existence. This phenomenon finds itself in extreme situations of vital activity, including natural and social cataclysms, in military and organizational psychology. In organizational psychology, individual adaptability with the need is analyzed in the study of career growth of workers, especially with the dynamic nature of professional activity and the environment for its implementation. Cultural adaptability characterizes a person's ability to successfully carry out intercultural and international contacts. This phenomenon, defined as operational adaptability, occupies an important place in the context of military doctrine in describing the mental status and capabilities of servicemen operating in situations of uncertainty, as well as in positive psychology combined with the concept of individual adaptation resources. It is shown that managers at all levels should be able to adapt their behavior to the circumstances in which they work. Cultural adaptability is crucial for successful global leadership. Moreover, cultural adaptability is seen as a subcomponent in the training of military personnel operating in an intercultural context. In the context of positive psychology, it has been shown that people with a high level of adaptability are able to accumulate and retain more psychological resources than those who are low in it. It is also shown that the content of the term resource as applied to adaptability is associated with such a means of behavior management as self-regulation and self-control.

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Zarudnaya E.A., Balashova E.Yu. Verbal memory in late ontogenesis: normal aging and late-age depression

The authors analyze the features of verbal memory in late-aged depression and normal aging. Due to the increase in the frequency of late-onset affective disorders of the depressive spectrum in recent decades, the attention of specialists is increasingly attracted to the analysis of mental processes of patients. One of the vulnerable components of the cognitive sphere in late depression is memory. The objective of this study was to assess verbal memory in patients with depression and mentally healthy late-aged. A group of patients with depression (F. 31, F. 32, F. 33 on ICD-10) consisting of 197 persons (age 68+13 years) who were hospitalized in the clinic of Mental Health Research center, as well as 100 mentally healthy persons (age 64+8,3 years) were examined. The control and clinical groups were comparable in terms of the main socio-demographic characteristics. The authors interpreted the results of the two methods: 1) learning and delayed recall of 5 words presented at the hearing; 2) the naming of the 5 sharp objects. The first method assessed: the volume of direct reproduction; the number of presentation of the material; the volume of delayed reproduction, the frequency of different types of errors. The second methodology assessed the frequency of errors, pauses and cases when respondents needed additional verbal stimulation and/or clarification of the semantic field. Statistical data processing was performed using the program SPSS Statistics and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The results showed that patients with depression coped worse with the proposed tasks than mentally healthy persons. When memorizing 5 words they had lower indicators of direct and delayed reproduction; they generally required more presentations of the material for learning. Negative age dynamics of indicators of the verbal memory was more pronounced for depression. When calling 5 sharp subjects patients with depression often paused; often needed verbal stimulation by a psychologist or a hint of the semantic field.

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Atadzhykova J.A., Enikolopov S.N. Studying the Verschrobene phenomenon in clinical psychology: current issues

The history of research into the phenomenon of schizotypy has led to the ambiguity of its significance in the field of clinical science at present time. In Russian psychiatry and clinical psychology schizotypy for many years has been primarily identified within the field of endogenous disorders. However, in the recent years having taken into account the body of research undertaken by the foreign clinicists, the new model of the Verschrobene-type changes is being developed in Russia. This model allows to refine the notion of schizotypy within the framework of accumulated clinical data in Russian clinical science and its reconciliation with the record of the foreign colleagues. Due to the formulation of the theory of the Verschrobene-type changes and the collection of empirical data the question of available methodologies has been raised. It has been shown that the perspective of studying the domain of schizotypy-like phenomena is methodologically limited. The only available measure of schizotypal traits in Russian language is the SPQ-74. The article presents the results of the exploratory study of the Verschrobene-type changes, carried out with the use of SPQ-74 on the clinical sample of 51 patients. This study allowed to confirm the hypothesis that postulates the Verschrobene phenomena as separate. However, the efficiency of the use of SPQ-74 in measuring and diagnosing schizotypal traits has not been demonstrated. This poses a question of the potential of using the measures of different type (clinical assessment) where a specialist plays a more significant role, which may counter-balance the vulnerabilities recognized in questionnaires.

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Akhmetzyanova A.I. Structural-functional organization of anticipatively-prognostic mechanism of socially-psychological adaptation with addictive behavior

In the solution of the resocialization tasks at the addictive behavior, there is the issue of socio-psychological adaptation and the mechanisms for its regulation, where the anticipatory-prognostic processes provide planning for the direction of the behavior transformation based on the assessment of external conditions. Returning to a "healthy" social environment from a pathological one places new demands on behavior and social functioning of an individual as a whole. Anticipation-prognostic processes play the leading role in the regulation of behavior. We should note the following contradictions: between the introduction of new methods and technologies for correcting addictive behavior, on the one hand, and increasing differentiation of the object content and reduced age of the addictions occurrence, on the other. There are also contradictions between high social demand for the need to return to the "healthy" social environment from the pathological one in addictive behavior, on the one hand, and low research activity in the study of factors, criteria and mechanisms that ensure the effectiveness of the resocialization process in addictive behavior, on the other. The need to resolve these contradictions at the social and socio-psychological levels leads to the need to study the anticipatory-prognostic mechanism of socio-psychological adaptation in addictive behavior. Assessment of the anticipatory-prognostic mechanism of socio-psychological adaptation in the range of norm-pathology at the social level allows predicting deviant manifestations both on a scale of the community as a whole and on a scale of individual social groups. At the socio-psychological level, it allows analyzing the adaptive resources of an individual in the context of changes in the social situation with the aim of planning and forecasting interpersonal interaction strategies. The aim of the research is to study the structural and functional organization of the anticipatory-prognostic mechanism of socio-psychological adaptation in addictive behavior. The research result found that a low level of socio-psychological adaptation, manifested in maladjustment, acceptance of oneself, emotional comfort and internality, is realized through an anticipatory failure, rigidity of regulatory processes, high dissociation. The structural and functional organization of the anticipatory-prognostic mechanism of socio-psychological adaptation in addictive behavior is represented by the anticipatory-perspective, internal-analytic and regulatory-adaptive factors characterized by a specific content in alcohol and drug addiction.

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Petrash M.D., Strizhitskaya O.Yu., Golovey L.A., Savenysheva S.S. Inventory of daily stressors

Daily stress is an essential part of a modern adult life, and this tendency leads to a continued growth of research on content, mechanisms, factors and predictors of daily stress. Despite it, there is still no instrument that could provide enough clear consideration of the daily stressors. Main aim of this work was to develop a questionnaire that would incorporate a reasonably wide repertoire of daily stressors, on one hand, and could be applied to any period within adulthood, on another. The process of development and primary validation of the questionnaire, designed to estimate daily stressors, is presented. The study sample was 335 adults aged 20–68, from Saint-Petersburg and Arkhangelsk, in particular 119 males and 216 females. Primary validation included: expert evaluation of the stressors and analysis of their content, alpha-factorization of stressors and identification of scales, interpretation of those scales, estimation of their consistency and convergent validity. Analysis showed that 55 items out of the preliminary formulated daily stressors were perspective for use. Factorization revealed 10 factors of daily stress: "Workbusiness", "Relations with others", "Plans interruption", "Finance", "Planning", "Family problems", "Environment", "Feelings–loneliness", "State of health", "Competition". The α-Cronbach obtained for the questionnaire was 0,949, results showed high consistence of the factors of daily stressors. Psychometric characteristics of the developed instrument suggest that it can be used as a questionnaire for the study of daily stressors of an adult.

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Shabelnikov V.K. Problem of subjectivity in the logic of cultural-historical approach

In article the ideas of the concept "subject" and the phenomenon of subjectivity widespread in psychology, philosophy and linguistics are analyzed. Initially the term "subject" bears in itself various meanings. If in linguistics this concept designates only an object of a speech, then in psychology the subject is understood as the human being allocated with consciousness and capacity to act logically. Bases of these subject abilities are least explained in logic of scientific research as they belong not to observed forms of the real things, but to the characteristics of processes deprived of substance’s shape. Concepts worked out by Hegel, J.Piaget, L.S.Vygotsky, P.J.Galperin and A.N.Leontiev are considered, ideas of subjectivity’s foundations, sources of thinking logic are compared. As the aspiration to understand bases of subjectivity directs psychology to the analysis of what isn't represented in visible forms, theoretical concepts of subjectivity is problematic to coordinate with scientific requirements of substantiality. J.Piaget desired to explain scientifically the logic of person’s intelligent by the sequence of the child’s organization of actions. As a basis of the process of formation of logical intelligent he has entered idea of "coordination" of actions, however this representation, key for understanding of logical thinking, left without theoretical explanation. Therefore the inexplicable process organizing logical schemes of intelligence began to play a major role in a picture of scientific interpretation of sources of subjectivity. Hegel has put prerequisites of cultural -historical approach to the analysis of subjectivity, but has taken away sources of subjectivity from the borders of material world. The world spirit which is embodied both in the history of mankind, and in subjectivity of people has acted as the basis of subjectivity in Hegel’s concept. Such idea of subjectivity didn’t correspond with ambitions of the personal activity which has captured Russia in the 20-th century. People wanted to see themselves as the subjects of history. L.S.Vygotsky and A.N.Leontiev have accepted the idea of social determination of personality’s subjectivity, but didn't raise the question of the initial fundamentals of logic defining the organization of social activity.

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Rasskazova E.I. Cognitive and emotional components of illness representation in mental disorders: the role of personality

In the studies of illness representation in patients with mental illness, an important task is to identify those components that are significant for the individual and that perform regulatory functions in relation to the experiences and activities associated with the illness. In this paper, based on Zeigarnik’s understanding of self-regulation, we suppose that closer relationships with personal characteristics should be found for those components of the illness representation push the processes of the personal level of self-regulation. Based on a clinical validation sample for the Russian version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) we studied 29 patients with affective disorders, 21 patients with schizophrenia and schizotypic disorder, and 21 patients with adaptation disorder who also completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire. It has been shown that in schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder, the overall severity of psychopathological personality traits is related to better recognition that the illness would be long and negatively affects the patient's life, as well as to the feeling of loss of control over illness and the uselessness of the treatment. In affective disorders, appraisal of illness as a cyclic and confidence in their control over the illness are associated with cynicism, hostility, and in some cases with signs of addictions and antisocial behavior. Patients with adaptation disorders report a lack of understanding of their illness if they report higher obsessiveness, low level of positive emotions, dysfunctional negative emotions, signs of deviant psychopathy. Uncertainty in the effectiveness of treatment and emotional reactions to the illness are associated with a broad nonspecific range of psychopathological traits.

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Rzhanova I.E., Alekseeva O.S., Fominykh A.Ya., Parshikova O.V. Working memory index as one of the main scale of Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence – fourth edition

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – fourth edition(WPPSI–IV) was created for children from 2,5 to 7,7 years. This test along with Full Scale contains following Primary Index Scales: Verbal Comprehension, Visual Spatial, Fluid Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory. Working Memory Index included 2 novel subtests: Picture Memory and Zoo Locations, which were constructed for this version of Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine diagnostic potential of 2 subtests: Picture Memory and Zoo Locations. There were two stages of our study. At the first stage 73 children at age from 2,5 to 4 were tested by WPPSI–IV. Children completed 7 subtests: 1) Receptive Vocabulary, 2) Block Design, 3) Picture Memory, 4) Information, 5) Object Assembly, 6) Zoo Locations, 7) Picture Naming. The sample of the second stage included 71 children at the age from 5 to 7 years. The method contains 4 subtests: 2subtests (Arithmetic and Digit Span) from WISC (Russian version) and 2 subtests from WPPSI–IV (Picture Memory and Zoo Locations). There weren’t significant relations between 2 Working Memory subtests at the younger children sample. Zoo Locations scores correlated only with Block Design scores. At the elder sample we found out significant relations between verbal working memory subtests and visual working memory subtests.

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Manukyan V.R. To the research of individual psychological goal-setting and life-planning characteristics

The author technique (survey) for study individual characteristics of goal-setting and life planning is discussed, the experience of applying the survey is described. This method combines quantitative and qualitative approaches and basing on individual life purposes analysis allows evaluating different characteristics of goal-setting and life planning. They are the ratio of dreams, expectations and goals in the picture of future, time distance of goals, relatedness with different life spheres, thoughtfulness of ways to achieve goals, level of goals significance, sources of goals emergence, motivational basis of goals, contradiction and interrelatedness of goals system. The results of the study using the survey where 176 adults aging of 18–48 took place, are presented. The results demonstrate high individual variability of the all parameters. Nevertheless the factor analysis revealed six types of life planning (covering 66,3% of dispersion): The detailed goal system based on own needs, The extraneous goals, The long-term planning, The termless planning, The compelled planning, The moderate planning. The types have age and gender specificity. There are significantly more long-term oriented, interrelated, contradictory to each other goals and goals set with advise, admiration or imitation (not founded on own needs) in early adulthood in comparison with middle age. Women are more turned to the future and are characterized by "tactical planning", whereas men are "strategic". Adults with high levels of psychological well-being tend to set goals, which are clear, well thought-out and detailed, based on own needs and have high significance for a person. The experience of using the technique shows its potential for studying individual psychological characteristics of goal-setting and life planning.

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Zharova О.A, Kravchenko Y.E. Hint and humor understanding

The article presents results of two experiments aimed to use different hints for humor issues. The Experiment 1 aims to compare two explanations of humor understanding within incongruity theory of humor. As a hint used special smiles emoji, those were disposed in key (or accidental) places of the jocks or illustrated one in two different representations of situation (or accidental aspects) of jocks. Results confirm the idea that incongruity at self isn’t enough to explain the humor understanding. The resolution of humors contradiction like in Suls model is more useful. The aim of the second experiment was using a hint for comparing of cognitive and not-cognitive aspects of jocks for humor understanding and laugh. As a hint was used the designation of emotional reaction expected as result of jocks exposure. There were jocks designated positive and negative emotions, compared with jocks without emotions designation. The results suggest that emotions designations especially of positive emotions raise the processing fluency. But the laugh more often appears when there were no any emotions designations. Results are interprets as the evidence of direct relation between jocks complexity and joy. In conclusion is discussed the potential of hints commonly used for problem solving issues for humor research.

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Karapetyan L.V. Typological features of respondents with different levels of the emotional-personal well-being

The article is devoted to the study of typological features of respondents with different levels of the emotional-personal well-being. So, changes in the economy, politics and geopolitics, in the social sphere in our country and in the whole world greatly affect on the experience of the man’s internal well-being. The contemporary researches focuse on the need to study the ratio of external and internal factors and their relationships affecting the establishment and maintenance of an optimal level of well-being. Among the internal factors there are the typological features, that determine the human behavior, this is why it becomes interesting to study them in the context of understanding the phenomenon of well-being. In psychology the correlates of well-being with different individual characteristics are identified, but the investigation of correlations between typological features and well-being was not conducted. Developing the concept of a new theoretical construct – emotional-personal well-being, based on the integration of existing foreign psychology approaches to its study, we conducted the investigation of typological characteristics of respondents with different levels of emotional-personal well-being. In the article emotional and personal well-being is considered as a holistic existential experience of the state of harmony between internal and external world arising in the process of existence, activity and human communication. This phenomena was studied using the technique "self-esteem of emotional and personal well-being" (SELB) (n = 2229), typological characteristics – by the Indicator of types Myers-Briggs (MBTI) (n = 857). The article analyzes the representation of different personality types in groups of respondents with different levels of emotional-personal well-being (strong positive, weak positive, weak negative and strong negative). It was revealed that positive characteristics of the technique SELB correlate with extraversion, and negative – with introversion. The obtained results can be used in both research and practical activities of the psychologist to diagnose and optimize the level of emotional and personal well-being.

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Migunova Y.M. Psychological factors of illness perpetuation in patients with headaches

The paper presents the systematization of studies of the psychological factors of the headache perpetuation from the perspective of the cultural-historical approach in psychosomatics. Headache perpetuation is understood as a process that includes not only medical criteria (symptom consolidation), but also psychological ill-being associated with the illness (decreased quality of life and social functioning). Aсcording to a proposed working model, illness representation in patients with headache could be described by interrelated blocks of (1) perception of pain and pain sensitivity (2) emotional and cognitive pain appraisal, (3) coping with pain. Decline in the patient's quality of life and functioning is related to specific peculiarities in each block. Based on review of empirical studies we demonstrate that both low and high pain sensitivity could be consequences of emotional context of situation of pain, cultural peculiarities of pain perception or personality traits. Changing of sensitivity could be a risk factor of chronification. High anxiety sensitivity, pain-related fear, external locus of treatment-related control and low sense of authorship in patients with headaches are related to disturbances in emotional and cognitive appraisals of pain. Emotional and cognitive usually take place simultaneously. Coping with illness can be disturbed at levels of coping-strategies and motivation of treatment. Use of maladaptive copings and rigid adherence to some strategies are risk factors for pain perpetuation. Narrowing of motivation sphere and using symptom for communication and manipulation can be marker of hypochondrization. Based on the identified factors of headache perpetuation possible targets of psychotherapy, diagnostic and prevention of chronification are discussed.

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2017 Vol. 11 Issue 57