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Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles
Eliseenko A.S., Poddiakov A.N. Dynamics of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application in a complex novel system management problem
Solving a complex problem during interaction with a novel complex system (a virtual factory) is considered from view of dynamics of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. Performance of successful and non-successful participants is compared based on objective indicators (e.g., profit gained, actions on acquisition of information about the system and actions to control the system, eye movements, etc.) and subjective indicators (participants’ evaluation of various aspects of the problem and performance). Eye tracking has been conducted in the context of classification of participants’ work with: (a) information panels of the factory, and (b) panels with controls. It was postulated that: (a) looking at the information panels is related to knowledge acquisition, and (b) looking at the panels with controls and practical actions on the controls are related to knowledge application. It has been shown that in the initial stages of complex problem solving successful participants set cognitive aims linked to the understanding of the system rather than practical aims (i.e., gaining profit). Non-successful participants set practical aims rather than cognitive ones. When novel variables were introduced into the system successful participants started prioritizing cognitive aims compared to practical aims whereas non-successful participants weakened both cognitive and practical aims. In conclusion, a hypothesis is put forward that success or failure in the management of novel systems can be linked to the type and intensity of cognitive and practical goals which participants set by themselves.
Balashova E.Yu. The time perspective of neuropsychological diagnostics: the path to the future through the difficult today
The author discusses a wide range of questions related to the current state and prospects of development of neuropsychological diagnostics. Neuropsychological diagnosis is necessery in different areas of health and education; it has great potential in the implementation of the factorial analysis of syndromes’ disorders of mental functions, in the definition of localization and lateralization of brain lesions. However, neuropsychological diagnostics today is facing a number of serious problems both methodical and methodological. These problems relate to the quality and accessibility for professionals classical stimulus materials and their modern versions, which can be used in diagnostic procedures as well as the lack of sufficient controlling indicators. Particular attention is given to the discussion of the advantages and disadvantages connected with the lack of a clear regulation of the procedural aspects of neuropsychological diagnostics, as well as the need to correlate the information obtained in the application of traditional qualitative methods and modern screening methods of assessing mental functions. The article provides a detailed analysis of all these problems.
The paper provides a review of foreign and Russian studies on negative aspects of creativity. We show and analyze the currently available knowledge on anti-social creativity and the factors that contribute to its implementation in deviant behavior. Special attention is paid to the studies that explore the relationship between situations, individual differences and negative or malevolent kinds of antisocial creativity. We list the kinds of creativity and antisocial behaviors in which it manifests itself. The paper describes the approaches to the understanding and study of creativity used to cause harm to other people, according to which the asocial creativity should be considered within the framework of morality and conventionality. We provide and analyze the functional model of creativity and its application for the creation of measures and solutions to counter terrorist acts. We distinguish situational and personal characteristics, knowledge of which makes the prediction and prevention of realization of creative potential in aggressive behavior. We analyze research methods of antisocial creativity and highlight promising areas for further study malevolent creativity implemented in various types of deviant behavior. We conclude on the need to study the interaction of personal and situational characteristics that encourage the use of creative abilities to the detriment of others.
Rasskazova E.I., Tkhostov A.S., Guldan V.V. Ways to care for the health and physical symptoms: the role of beliefs and actions
Health behavior traditionally considered as one of the key factors of health and illness, and while beliefs (attitudes) about health – as an important source of the intention to change this behavior. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of attitudes about the different ways of health care and correspondent actions on subjective health. We hypothesized that behavior moderates relationship between beliefs and health: in particular, the belief in the importance of regular check-ups are associated with better health only in those who do it. 113 adult respondents evaluated 21 ways of health care – how much they believe in their importance and whether they do it on a regular basis. Then we assessed eight subjective health and illness indicators: frequency and duration of flues, the frequency, severity and duration of exacerbations of chronic somatic illnesses, subjective appraisal of physical health, subjective somatic complaints and their presentation to others. According to results, beliefs are easier translated to behavior, if they require less activity, more simple, associated with the actual symptoms, and less socially supported (e.g., alternative medicine). Specific active ways of caring for the health (physical exercises, tempering) are associated with the best appraisal of the health, regardless of belief in their importance. Belief in the importance of regular monitoring and health screening procedures are associated with fewer complaints in only those who follow these beliefs. However, we also found other forms of moderation: in particular, by a number of indicators there are people "at risk" who considers some behavior important, but does not do it: for instance, the belief in the importance of spare herself in the time of illness and taking vitamins are associated with more frequent presenting of complaints in only those who doesn’t follow these beliefs.
Ayanyan A.N, Golubeva N.A., Martsinkovskaya T.D., Poleva N.S. The specifics of the formation of children and adolescents in a situation of identity is transitive
The peculiarities of the formation of the identity of children and adolescents in situations of transitivity, which are the main characteristics of the plurality of socio-cultural contexts, the constant volatility of the world and its uncertainty. The necessity of forming a new methodology that reflects new socio-cultural realities. It is shown that modern theoretical paradigm must be flexible and multidimensional construct that includes harmoniously interconnected approaches to the interpretation of the material obtained in the study of the different sides of reality, and in different conditions. They can complement and partially overlap each other, as if turning to the outside by different parties. In this epistemological paradigm combined with social, but not determined by it. Research paradigm defines a set of methods that define the design of the study. The value of these constructs is determined by a harmonious combination of permanence in their content and variability. Their important feature is the flexibility and correlation with transitive reality, and with each other. Disclosed are the main characteristics of transitivity – globalization, the transformation of values and attitudes, the continuity of the process of socialization, the expansion of the information space. It is shown that the variability of human development and the preservation of its own identity related to his ability to focus not on one but several behavior strategies or a combination of them. Thus the main criterion is the ability to save an image I congruence and image of the world. The new design features of social fan opens for man and socialization in the information space. Features of the identity in the context of social transitivity manifested in the growing role of ethnic identity, decreasing the value of civic and linguistic identity and increase component of role, as well as a strong trend towards personalization, which is manifested in the preschool years. Showing the complexity and risk of formation of civil and socio-cultural identity, arising from the fact that the situation can be considered as transitive difficult situations.
Guseltseva M.S. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the harmonization processes of socialization, individualization and identity of the person in the conditions of transitive society
In the context of the cultural-analytical approach shows that for the study of specific processes of socialization, individualization and identity of the person in the conditions of transitive society psychological science needs to develop adequate modern culture model in designing the methodology and terminology that allow to explore new becoming and non-obvious to the previous study of optics reality. The socialization in a transitive society is not only a number of features and properties, directly related to changes in the culture and way of life, but is a complex construct, implying an analytical approach: the selection in this construct different facets of situational and additional terminological differentiation of the study of social and psychological reality. Modern socialization of the younger generations implies the ability to design the identity and active development of the living environment; bearing not only on the cultural heritage and progressive civilizational trends, but also the release of counterproductive social representations and historical traditions. An important role is played here by the correlation with the processes of socialization of cultural-historical context, namely in view of the modernization of resources (personal, national, general culture), meaning the modernization transformation of society and the individual in the present. Risk complexity and diversity of socialization processes in transitive society becomes the fact that the socialization of the individual at the same level of culture and within the same social group can coexist or conflict with no-socialization person with other levels of culture and other social groups. The problem for the psychological study of the features of socialization of children and adolescents, as well as the phenomena of re-socialization in a transformed society remains marginalized transition comprehension mechanisms of social and cultural movements and subcultures in the main line of development of culture. In this regard, the study of the phenomena of socialization requires the addition of historical and evolutionary strategies of methodological and analytical subject (bringing to the fore the subjectivity of the changes in the historical dynamics of the society), and the historical and genetic approach cultural-analytical, taking into account first of all non-obvious trends in intellectual and socio-cultural movements.
Fedunina N.Yu., Bannikov G.S., Vikhristyuk O.V., Bazhenova M.D. Monitoring of early signs of anxiety and depressive disturbances in teacher and pedagogy students: structural and dynamic aspects
The article deals with the problem of mental health in educational setting. It presents the results of monitoring of early signs of anxiety and depressive disturbances in teachers and pedagogy students in the schools of Moscow. 61 secondary school teachers and 107 pedagogy students participated in the research. Four groups of parameters were assessed: 1) personal psychopathology, 2) psychosomatic profile, 3) psycho-emotional characteristics, and 4) individual coping strategies. The following measures were used: social-demographic questionnaire, Symptom CheckList-90-Revised, Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ-IV), WHO-5, Ways of Coping Questionnaire and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The teachers and students had similar patho-characteristic copying patters, yet anxiety and depressive symptoms were more widespread among teachers. The beginning of professional career (work with children in the summer camp) leads to significant increase in the level of anxiety and depressiveness, as well as to cardinal individual changes in the structure of copying strategies. The implications of these results for prophylactics of professional burnout at different stages of teaching career are discussed.
Eidelman G.N., Sergienko E.A. The role of subjective factors in the psychological well-being of youth in the situation of professional self-determination
In this paper the problem of psychological well-being of young people in a situation of professional self-determination in the modern world was studied. The study involved 273 residents of Moscow and Moscow region at the age of 20–30 years old in the situation of professional self-determination. Psychological well-being was studied by means of "psychological well-being scale" offered by K.Riff. Perception of themselves, the world, attitude to their age, life position, comparison themselves with ideal were accepted as subjective factors considered. This paper presents the results of the factor and regression analyses. It was found that the basic psychological need during a period of professional self-determination of the youth enhancing psychological well-being is the connection with other people, what compensates a lack of professional competence. The subjective view of the world is considered as a component of the human resource system. The results of the factor analysis and regression analysis are represented and revealed both objective and subjective factors influenced on the psychological well-being. It was showed that subjective factors determine psychological well-being during the period of professional self-determination to a greater extent than the social and economic factors. The role of subjective factors, reflecting the degree of achievement of the ideal, more essential than the role of the subjective assessment of ourselves and the ambient world. It was found that, depending on the sphere of psychological well-being varies the set of predictors and impact of conditionality. A multidirectional impact on different areas of psychological well-being of such subjective factors as "degree of achievement of the ideal in the way Me" and "tolerance" is fixated. It is noted that such subjective factors as the attitude toward themselves, others and ourselves with the ideal comparison are self-motivators improving psychological well-being.
Modern perceptual psychology can be characterized by an increasing trend towards the formation of ontological research approach. We can observe intensive methodological search conducted in two directions: the subject of research and the object of research. It is shown that the ontologization of the subject of psychological perceptual research is aimed at the revelation of natural principles that psychic reality is based on. The transformation of the subject of perceptual research, i.e., the emphasis on its existential aspect is an effective means to increase the ontological correctness of psychological knowledge that is to correspond to the life it studies, as well as to discover deeper and more essential levels of the psychic reality organization. By using extensive empirical material, we illustrate the recent interest in fundamental study of "new" perceptual reality as one of the ways of development of modern scientific knowledge. The relevant problem of searching for opportunities to analyze an individual’s activity under natural conditions is solved in perceptual psychology by means of formation of a certain research direction in which "natural processes" are used as objects of fundamental psychological research. Rigorous study of real stimuli lets us see new perceptual patterns that haven’t been registered before and thus pose new research problems concerning the integrity of perception and its accordance with nature.
Krasnova O.V., Poleva N.S. Comparative study of the socio-cultural identity in adolescence and adulthood
It is shown that the main problems in researches of sociocultural identity of teenagers and elderly people are connected with studying of contents and structure of identity, her main components, and also with a research of factors which influence identity formation. It is emphasized that the major factor influencing designing of teenage identity is transitivity of the modern world. It is shown that a multi-aspect, complex character and balance of identity are general characteristics of identity at teenage and mature age that promotes positive socialization of teenagers and people of old age. Features of narrative identity and a narrative way of creation of identity at teenage and mature age are revealed. The role of temporary prospect in designing and achievement of integrity of identity of teenagers and elderly people is shown. Special attention is paid to influence on formation of identity of social space which is defined in terms of a construct of a psychological chronotope and subjective relation to his components. Conclusions about communications of development of the personality, formation of identity at teenage and mature age with such continuums of social space as "autonomy – dependence" and "activity – passivity" are drawn; about a community of the main regularities of formation of identity and communication of distinctions and features of formation of identity with age and specific features, problems of development of the personality at this age stage and influence of factors macro – and micro social space. In conclusions the importance of experiences (social and individual) which are considered as the main mechanism allowing to connect various aspects of identity in uniform integrity, to provide balance of processes of socialization – individualization and balance of objective and subjective components of a psychological chronotope is highlighted.
Alekseeva O.S., Rzhanova I.E. The influences of sex and birth order on differences of parental treatment
The study examined the effects of children’s birth order and sex on differential parental treatment. 302 families with two children participated in the study (N = 1208). Maternal and paternal relations with children were assessed using the technique "Parent-child interaction questionary". This technique allows to obtain both parent’s and children’s evaluations of parent-child relationships. Analysis of parental ratings revealed that fathers demonstrated a higher level of connivance with daughters than with sons. Both parents showed higher control over the younger children, regardless of child sex. Analysis of children’s ratings showed that boys evaluated higher paternal negative control than girls. Fathers were more likely than mothers showed differences in relations with children. It has been shown that fathers distinguished younger daughters in mixed-sex pairs. Fathers had greater confidence in communication with young daughters, they were more inconsistent in their parenting. Younger girls from mixed-sex pairs got higher scores on the scale of a positive relationship with their fathers, than other children.
Egorova M.S., Sitnikova M.A., Parshikova O.V., Chertkova Yu.D. “Dark” personality traits in evaluations of positive and negative film characters
The study tested the hypothesis that subclinical psychopathy, unlike Machiavellianism and subclinical narcissism, is intrinsic to the image of a positive character, and thus that respondents evaluating characters based on Dark Triad traits would attribute a lower level of Machiavellianism and narcissism but a higher level of psychopathy to the characters than to themselves. The participants of the study (n = 72, 63% women, aged 16–69, M = 27,8, SD = 9,11) filled out questionnaires for Dark Triad traits (SD3), the Big Five (Short Measure of the Big Five Personality Domains), and tolerance for ambiguity (brief measure). The respondents first completed the questionnaires for themselves and then filled out the same forms for four characters from two films ("The Rifleman of the Voroshilov Regiment" and "Leviathan"). The film characters were selected based on a moral assessment ("positive" or "negative") and whether they were able to achieve their goals ("successful" or "unsuccessful"). The instructions emphasized that respondents should answer questions not to reflect their perceptions of a given film character, but as the character himself would answer if he were being completely honest. As expected, the resulting correlation of Dark Triad scores in self-evaluations and evaluations of film characters showed that negative characters were ascribed higher Dark Triad levels. Positive characters had lower narcissism and Machiavellianism scores than negative characters and respondents’ self-evaluations on corresponding traits. However, the correlation of psychopathy scores in self-evaluations and in evaluations of film characters was different. The lowest psychopathy scores were found in respondents’ self-evaluations. Study participants attributed higher psychopathy scores to positive characters than to themselves; the scores of negative characters were higher still. Thus, the study hypothesis was confirmed: the image of a positive character presumes a relatively high level of psychopathy. A comparison of Big Five and tolerance for ambiguity scores demonstrated that positive characters were ascribed higher levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness and lower levels of tolerance for ambiguity, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience.