Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Emelyanova T.P., Drobysheva T.V. Collective feelings about significant social phenomena: Russian orthodox universities vs secular students’ groups comparative analysis

Collective feelings have been analyzed as one of the components of large social groups psychology. The mentality role in expressing collective feelings has been researched. Religiousness as a type of mentality has been identified. The research has been aimed at detecting differences in youths’ collective feelings about significant social phenomena depending on their religiousness. The respondents sample consisted of orthodox universities students group (58 individuals, 51% girls, 49% boys) and the secular ones (60 individuals, 54% girls, 46% boys). The primary method was interview which consisted of two stages. The first (qualitative stage) included free recalling by respondents significant social phenomena, events and feelings they evoke. The second (quantitative) stage included scale assessment for general list of phenomena and events through intensity of the feelings evoked. For compiling socio-psychological portraits of both groups the following methodologies have been used: “Social Identity”, “Scale of Happiness”, “Value Orientation”, author’s questionnaire “Political Preferences”. All data have been processed in SPSS 22.0 software. Some significant differences in collective feelings of orthodox universities students vs the secular ones have been detected. Higher intensity of feelings have been detected in orthodox universities students. This affected both positive and negative modalities of feelings. Specifically, feelings of annoyment and anger are less typical for them than for secular students, because these feelings are seen as sin. At the same time, feeling of compassion was stronger for orthodox students. The markedly expressed feelings of belonging to their country in connection with military industry strengthening has been shared by 43% of these respondents (as compared with 8% of seculars). The detected differences in assessments are being explained by the groups’ specific mentality, particularly by more intensely expressed patriotic feelings of orthodoxes (love of motherland), their more intense emotional life, their exclusion of deeply negative feelings. 

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Martsinkovskaya T.D., Kiseleva E.A. Socialization in multicultural space

The concepts need for "language" and "linguistic identity" are revealed, the connection between linguistic, ethnic and sociocultural identity is shown. The role of the need for language and linguistic identity in the process of socialization of small and large nations in a multicultural space is analyzed. The relationship between language and culture is revealed, as well as possible options for interpreting linguistic identity and the need for native and foreign languages. The results of an empirical study of the attitude to the language and culture of youth living in Moscow and the Republic of Komi, as well as the ethnic group of "Russian Germans", are presented. It is proved that a specific social situation led to the change in the status of the language and the attitude towards it. Never the less, the language, which is not even a priority one, emotionally remains a phenomenon of ethnicity. It is shown that the attitude towards the country among the majority of respondents is neutral, while the attitude to language, culture and, especially, to the native nature is always emotional. The majorities of respondents communicate and think in Russian; nevertheless they consider the German or Komi language as native ones. Thus ethnic identification is carried out on the basis of native, rather than the most commonly used language. In multinational cities the differences between ethnic and sociocultural identity are small. Culture as a positive component of sociocultural identity dominates in the big city, and its influence on ethnic identity in this case is ambivalent. The low status of the native language can lead to a stigmatized linguistic identity and increase anxiety and uncertainty in the future. With an unequivocally positive attitude to nature, the attitude to the native and foreign culture can be ambivalent. At the same time, all respondents have an unambiguously positive, idealized attitude towards their ethnos, which leads to ethnocentrism and a negative attitude towards foreign nations.

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Zirko A.V., Orlov A.B. Vocal therapy: research perspective

Conceders the main fields of vocal therapy and vocal practices in psychotherapy. The vocal practices inside the particular fields of psychotherapy are shined out. Amongst them are expressive arts therapy, process-oriented psychology, ontotherapy etc. Single vocal psychotherapeutic practices are also mentioned: music vocal psychotherapy, vocal music therapy, vocal psychotherapy, transpersonal voice therapy etc. The possible models of vocal therapy are considered. The medical model of vocal therapy is viewed as a way to affect patient’s organism and personality. Psychological model is observed as a way for client’s self-expression and discovering his authenticity and wholeness. Some methods of vocal psychotherapy are discussed, among them are techniques for group vocal music psychotherapy in hospitals, vocalizations in altered state of mind, vocal holding techniques, free associative singing, chanting, meditations, relaxation and breathing techniques. Methods of small empirical investigations in the present field of study, such as observation, questionnaire surveys, self-reports, psychophysiological methods are mentioned. Origin of inner Self and formation of outer Self are described. The present model is related with the possibility of finding a human authentic voice. The ways of self-identification are described. It was envisaged that self-identity may be reflected in the way of how human’s voice sounds. The probable peculiarities of vocal sounds are described. The model of vocal therapy process for finding an authentic voice of inner Self is suggested. Besides, the classification of vocalizations and markers of different types of vocalizations are put forward. Types of vocalizations are related with vocal sounds of inner and outer self and matched with inner instances of personality, which appear in psychotherapy and in everyday life: inner client, inner therapist and inner visor. It is supposed that, just like in verbal psychotherapy, where gradual transformation from inner visor to inner client and inner therapist takes place, in vocal therapy the transformation would go from impressive and inauthentic vocalizations firstly to the whole spectrum of vocalizations and later to expressive and authentic vocalizations. The possible perspective of empirical research is suggested. The criteria, which will help the participants to assess the result of vocalizations are given.

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Zelyanina A.N., Padun M.A. About the problem of posttraumatic growth: current state of subject and research perspectives

The review of literature results of posttraumatic growth research are presented in this article. The current state of the subject is presented by further points: the definition of "posttraumatic growth", the theories explaining the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth, the data regarding the forecasts of posttraumatic growth. It was revealed that posttraumatic growth is the phenomenon of positive personality changes, caused by the efforts to survive through the most horrible sets of circumstances. People who have experienced it describe five general types of changes: relating to others, new possibilities, personal strength, spiritual change and appreciation of life. There are two main theories explaining the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth. On the base of these theories we have made conclusion that points of view regarding of phenomenon of posttraumatic growth are remaining unilateral because all theories take into consideration only cognitive process after trauma as main releasers of posttraumatic growth. However, the data analysis showed that sociodemographic markers, personality, the traumatic events, health indicators also must be take into consideration as forecasts of posttraumatic growth. Certainly, cognitive processes and structures play the main role in this model. Because it is a cognitive structure which allows the person to interpret the experience positively. The data regarding contingency of posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth are also important. It was revealed that posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth are presented in person simultaneously and there is an opinion that an initially high level of posttraumatic stress predicts a subsequent posttraumatic growth above and beyond growth stability, but not vice versa.

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Grebennikova O.V., Huzeeva G.R., Konchalovskaya M.M., Ayanyan A.N. Social representations and value orientations in the world view of modern teenagers: a mosaic of contradictions

The world view of modern teenagers in the unstable social situation through the updating of social representations and value orientations is discussed. Social representations can serve as cognitive component of the world picture that are born in ordinary everyday thinking in order to help man to comprehend and interpret the surrounding social reality. Values and emotions represent the affective component of the world picture, which manifest themselves in interpersonal relationships. In the modern world one of the most important values is becoming success, and vision of success reflects the place of a teenager among other people, evaluation of their actions, behaviors, and relationships with other people. The results of studying the location and nature of social representations in the world picture of older adolescents in a situation of the transitivity of the modern society are presented. The resulting materials show that the social representations about the environment  in the world picture of modern youth are extremely unstructured and inconsistent, have a low degree of connectedness of different aspects of reality between them, that significantly complicates the building of the world picture. Emotional experiences of adolescents and young people are more harmonious. They show not only the most affectively charged images in the film world, but also the contradictions between the attitude in the world and attitude towards the world. The high degree of importance of the values of independence and achievement for all adolescents that indicates a high motivation for autonomy and personal recognition. Professional orientation and spatial characteristics of residence not only reflecte in the content of the picture of the world of teenagers, but also determine the direction of its development. The lack of harmonious relationship between the perception and ideas about the world in general is discovered, that complicates the formation of a personalized picture of the world.

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Chernov D.N., Frolova S.V., Shal L.G., Ernandes-Himenes M.S. Peculiarities of interpersonal relations as a factor of formation of language competence in the middle school age in norm and at a pathology

The study of the peculiarities of interpersonal relations as a factor of formation of language competence in the middle school age in norm and at a pathology was conducted. For the study of language competence we used tests for knowledge of Russian vocabulary, grammar, phonetics, knowledge of English. With the aim of the study of sense of language we developed a method based on the text "Incident with Oliver" by R.M.Frumkina. The text contains words in which the root morphemes are replaced by meaningless sound combinations, but grammatical relationships with other words are preserved. The semantic and grammatical accuracy of translations into the Russian was estimated. We used "Film test" by R.Gil’ and the method of sociometry to evaluate the interpersonal relations of a child. A control sample – 26 children 12–13 years, studying in the same class of secondary school. The experimental sample – 18 children with "minimal brain dysfunction" of the same age studying in the same class. In contrast to the normative group, children with developmental disabilities have low levels of language competence and weak structural connectivity of its different components. They were uncritical to their own language activity. These children have negative emotional attitude to lessons and not perceived the teacher as a helper in overcoming the difficulties. On the contrary, curiosity, focus on interaction with the teacher is positively and conflict and the desire for loneliness is negatively associated with indicators of language competence and attitudes to the situation of language learning in the normative group. The overly close relationships of a child with minimal brain dysfunction with parents create unfavorable conditions for its immersion in the learning process. In norm the positive relationships in the study group and the adoption of a child by classmates creates socio-psychological conditions for optimization of language learning. The results show a lack of socio-psychological work with children with developmental disabilities, contributing to organization of optimal conditions for learning.

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Permenova D.S. The verbal component of the speech behavior of primary school-age children with mental retardation

The concept of speech behavior of children with mental retardation and various points of view on this phenomenon are discussed. The issue of understanding speech behavior in domestic and modern psychology is considered. Separately, attention is drawn to the specific features of speech behavior of children with mental retardation. There is also highlighted a structure of speech behavior, consisting of six components: verbal, semantic (cognitive), emotional, ethical (moral), motivational, prognostic. Theoretical grounds that served to highlight this structure are also given in the article and correlated with the author's. The aim of the study is to reveal the hierarchy of verbal orientations in the speech behavior of children with mental retardation. Therefore, in the conducted special research, special attention is paid to the verbal component of speech behavior of children with mental retardation. The method of the study was a preliminary conversation, a free letter, which was processed by the method of content analysis. The verbal component was analyzed from the perspective of the diversity of verbal themes. Particular attention is drawn to the frequency of using each verbal topic in speech as a lexico-grammatical characteristic, and the importance of these topics for children of primary school age with mental retardation. In addition, the main verbal orientations, reflecting the system of value orientations, a picture of the world and the relationship of children with mental retardation, are highlighted. The results singled out and analyzed the main trends in speech behavior of children with mental retardation. The article attempts to explain the results obtained from the point of view of modern culture and the generality of children with mental retardation.

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Akimova A.Yu., Oboznov A.A. The factors of increase in trust and decrease in distrust of human to technique

Results of a research of factors causing changes of trust and distrust of a human to the equipment are presented. Author's approach to studying of trust and distrust to the equipment as rather independent psychological relations is reasonable. The empirical research of factors of increase in trust and decrease in distrust to the equipment on selection of 1141 people who are carrying out interaction with it in various spheres of activity is conducted. It is shown that changes of trust and distrust to the equipment can be caused by various combinations of general and specific factors. General factors cause the interconnected changes of trust and distrust to the equipment in the field of consideration by their dependent and opposite relations (the level of one relation decreases at increase in level of another). Specific factors cause the changes of trust and distrust which aren't connected among themselves to the equipment in the field of consideration by their independent relations (any combinations in changes of their orientation are possible). The conclusion is drawn that influence of set of general and specific factors allows reaching different combinations of levels of trust and distrust to the equipment and gives the chance of their purposeful change. The empirical data confirming that factors causing changes of trust and distrust to the equipment in subjects having various statuses in relation to the equipment (the user or the operator, the professional or the fan, etc.) differ are provided. It is noted that increase in trust and decrease in distrust is more often connected with improvement of its operational and technical characteristics for persons operating the equipment in professional activity; appearance improvement, increase in comfort, predictability of service conditions of the equipment, overcoming own negative experiences concerning interaction with it matters for users. It is noted that the accounting of general and specific factors at design of difficult technical objects may promote purposeful management of the relations of trust and distrust of the human to the equipment for optimization of human-to-machine interaction.

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Antonova N.V. Features of the self-determination process during different stages of professional development

The characteristics of self-determination process at different stages of professional development are analyzed. As the indicators of self-determination features we considered value-motivational complex and the type of professional identity. In general, the dynamics of professional development correlates with age, length of work and career development. It is shown that the self-determination processes are nonlinear associated with the stages of professional development: the highest level of intrinsic motivation is observed at the stage of Internal, not a Mentor; the hypothesis of dominance of the reached type of identity at the higher stages of professional development wasn’t confirmed. At the same time, it was found that people in the "Mentor" and "Authority" stages had the status of a pseudoidentity, and at the "Master" stage the status of a diffuse identity, which is inconsistent with the theoretical model and may indicate the negative trends in personal and professional development. The achieved positive identity does not dominate at any stage. Values of assertion are most pronounced at the early stages of professional development; however, their significance is also increased at the stage of "Mentor". The hypothesis of the predominance of the value of professional self-realization in the higher stages of professional development has not been confirmed. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to modify the typology of stages of professional development in accordance with the specifics of professionalization in the modern world, and that it is necessary to study the factors of professional deformation in the late stages of professional development. The results can be used in vocational guidance and career counseling, as well as in the preparation of personnel evaluation programs.

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Rezazadeh Z., Bayanova L.F. Conditionality of mental states with moral normativity

The results of empirical research of moral norms’ influence on the mental state of a person are presented in this article. The problem of determination of states remains largely uncertain. There are almost no studies that reflect the facts of mental states conditionality connected with compliance or noncompliance behavior of the subject taken in the culture of rules and regulations. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of normativity as the properties of the individual to experience their mental states. Methods that detect the profile of mental states and moral normativity are used in this research. Method that is used to measure psychological states is called "The relief of mental state" made by A.O. Prohorov; multilevel personality questionnaire (IPC) that is called "Adaptability" is used to determine moral norms, it is containing a scale of "moral norms". The sample of respondents is 270 people aged 19 to 25 years. Impact indicators are established by calculating the one-way ANOVA. The results show that the degree of compliance with human morals has an impact on a number of his mental states associated with mental processes, feelings and behavior. So, the moral normativity effects on the course of mental processes which manifests itself in the sensitivity to external influences, clarity and awareness of perception, the flow of emotional and volitional processes. The influence of moral norms on all the factors on the scale of "experience" was detected. In the mental states that regulate behavior moral norms influence to behavior control, the adequacy, deliberation, tension stability. It has been found that the higher moral normativity is, the less spontaneous conditions in certain behavioral manifestations of personality are. The impact of moral norms to the state associated with physiological reactions was not found.

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Baleva M.V., Kovaleva G.V., Gasimova V.A. Effects of group identity on ingroup bias and intergroup stereotyping

This research investigated the effects of group identity on ingroup bias and intergroup stereotyping in the perception of artificial social groups. The group identity was considered through its affiliative parameters (group membership and ingroup assimilation with majority or minority), as well as its motivational component (level of subjective importance of information about the target groups). Ingroup bias was treated via prototypicality (i.e., the tendency to perceive one’s own ingroup as more prototypical of a superordinate category than the outgroup). Stereotyping was defined as the tendency to describe the representatives of target groups in "trait-manner" instead of "behavior-manner". The study was conducted on the samples of 206 and 103 students from 17 to 22 years old. Information about the social groups was presented in the text looked like the media article. After reading the text, the subjects were asked to identify themselves with one of the groups, as well as characterize the typical representatives of these groups through a set of personality characteristics and behavioral description. The procedure was organized in the logic of a quasi-experimental design, using ANOVA for processing the data. The obtained facts supported Tejfel’s minimal groups theory and revealed that ingroup bias and intergroup stereotyping could appeared even under random and objectively motiveless choice of group membership. It has been found that the subjective assignment of the ingroup to the majority, and also increased importance of subjective information about the target groups could strengthen ingroup bias, but did not impact the processes of intergroup stereotyping.

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Golynchik E.O., Batkhina A.A. The behavior strategies in interpersonal conflict among students: cross-cultural research

The empirical study results on the cultural specificity of the conflict behavior strategy choice of Russian and German universities’ students in the context of the learning environment are presented. The sample represented by 195 respondents of which 114 people are Russian students and 81 people are German students. To explore strategies of conflict behavior the author’s questionnaire based on a survey method and content analysis was developed. The following conflict situations were considered: conflict between two students; conflict between student and teacher; conflict between student and parents. Cross-cultural comparison of the samples demonstrated that Russian and German students in a situation of conflict with students and teachers prefer to use different strategies of conflict behavior. For Russian respondents this strategy is the avoiding, and for the German ones is the collaborating. There are no significant differences in preferences strategies in a situation of conflict with parents between the two groups. Although the Russian students most frequently use the accommodation strategy and the German students use the collaboration. In addition, the Russian respondents choose the model of behavior depending on the situation and the German students act regardless of the conditions and opponents. There are significant relations between such culture dimensions as individualism (horizontal and vertical), masculinity, power distance, long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, and the choice of the conflict behavior strategies. For Russian students the choice of strategy in almost all situations is significantly associated with the level of masculinity and individualism, and for German ones the choice is associated with a long-term perspective. These results reveal the significance of such predictor of conflict behavior as culture.

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