Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

 


Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya

Journal Editorial Board
 

 

Psychological paradoxes of individual and social development in a multicultural society [Special issue]

As usual, this issue is formed on the base of dialogues at the annual Shpetovskuh readings. Their theme this year was "Psychological paradoxes of individual and social development in a multicultural society." It seems to us that the answers to the questions of the correlation of the individual and the social in a modern transitive, multicultural society can be found, in particular, in the works of G.G. Shpet on ethnic psychology and internal form of the word. This possibility was proved by using the concept of an internal form in the analysis of the psychological chronotope.

In general, the subjects of the articles focuse on the problems of acculturation of emigrants in new sociocultural conditions, values ​​and standards, constantly changing and varying the correlation and content of the social and individual development contexts.

The discussion began with a very interesting report by A.N.Poddyakov, which was already mentioned on the page of issue in FB. The question of whether it is necessary to re-educate emigrants to new values ​​is touched in the content of many articles, without finding, that is natural, an unambiguous answer. At the same time, the discrepancy between values ​​and stereotypes concerns literally all aspects of the social and individual development context - from the notions about heroes, ideas about the future, stereotypes of old age. Therefore, more and more relevant are various areas, including the notion of culture as one of the leading determinants of the development of the psyche.

In general, the authors are fascinatingly and polemically revealing the positive and negative aspects of personality development in today's multicultural space, showing new trends in the study of a multicultural society.

 

Contents

Martsinkovskaya T.D. Internal form of psychological hronotope: approaches to the problem

The concept of the chronotope in biology and philology is revealed. The specificity of the psychological chronotope is shown, as well as the importance of the chronotope heterochronism, the discrepancy between time and space. A complex, 6-dimensional chronotope structure consisting of three spatial and three time parameters is proved. The significance of the construct of the psychological chronotope for analyzing the processes of socialization and the formation of identity in the transitive world is revealed. The consequences of transitivity, which actualize the use of the construct of the psychological chronotope, are shown. The adequacy of the use of a psychological chronotope is demonstrated in the analysis of the relationship between the social and individual aspects of identity. The psychological essence of large and small chronotopes is considered. A small chronotope in psychology can be represented as separate segments of the life span, which should be formed into a system of a large psychological chronotope (life in general). The analysis of the harmonious combination of different aspects of the psychological chronotop raises the question of the relationship between social and personal identity in process of the development of society and human being.  The variants of the discrepancy between personal and social time, the influence of disharmoniousness of these combinations on creativity and the fate of scientists and artists are presented. The value of the internal form of the chronotope is revealed. It is shown that the psychological chronotope reflects the relationship between the six parameters of space and time in the general (objective) and personal (subjective) spaces and times. And its internal form is associated with the emotional experience of a certain moment in this relationship, that is, it is an emotional response (emotional experience) to the connection between competitive small chronotopes - the moments of the life path in space and time. Variants of the description of the internal form of the chronotope in poetry are shown; it is states that poetry to a greater extent than other types of art reflected the essence of this concept. In conclusion, it is proved that a comparative analysis of the sense, external and internal forms of the psychological chronotope demonstrates their harmony / disharmony. In this case, the impossibility of their complete coincidence gives an intention for development and personal growth.

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Falikman M.V. New Vygotskian wave in cognitive science: The mind as an unfinished project

The paper reveals two simultaneous tendencies in the contemporary cognitive science: the ascendance of neuroscience and the growing interest in those aspects of human cognition which distinguish human mind from operation of a technical device. Current research trends are considered, which group around the ideas of cultural-historical constructivism. As examples of this ''Vygotskian'' wave in cognitive science, we discuss, first, Neuroarchaeology and the Material Engagement theory (L.Malafouris), second, Extended Cognition and the predictive coding framework (A.Clark), and third, the Culture as Situated Cognition theory (D.Oyserman). In the Material Engagement theory, L.Malafouris puts forward the original key concepts of metaplasticity and the material sign, which he uses to analyze co-evolution of human mind and the material environment in the historical development of humankind. According to A.Clark's Extended Cognition theory, human cognitive system at any stage of evolution is open to the material word, which thus becomes its integral part, and the two could be considered only as intrinsically interconnected. D.Oyserman provides an original explanation of the dichotomy of individualist (Western) and collectivist (Eastern) cultures widely discussed in the contemporary cultural neuroscience, relying upon the understanding of culture as situated cognition. Which unites all these approaches are the pronounced interest towards evolution and the idea of the predictive nature of human activity typical for constructivist approaches to cognition. We believe that bridging gaps between state of the art cognitive studies and the cultural-historical activity theory, largely based upon the principle of anticipation, can be considered as one of the primary concerns for the contemporary psychology.

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Balashova E. Yu. Cultural-historical determinants of aging: past and present

In the present article considers the problem of cultural-historical determinants of aging that are relevant to developmental psychology, clinical psychology, gerontology and geriatrics.The author conducts a comparative analysis of the perception of old age in different cultures and in different historical periods. The special urgency of the theme chosen is related to global demographic changes and the need for understanding the multilevel and multidirectional reconstructions that occur with personality, cognitive sphere, behavior, social activity and adaptation of aging people. To objectify a number of cross-cultural and historical differences in attitudes to age and ageing allows an appeal to proverbs, myths, literary works, religion, humanities and natural sciences concepts of different countries and peoples. The article commented on various images of old age in Russian and Chinese proverbs, dedicated to the old  statements of Confucius, the ideas of Buddhism and Daosism, views on the old age of Platon, Aristotel, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Lucius Anney Seneca, writers and poets of the middle Ages and the Renaissance (Dante, Hans Sachs, Erasmus, Francois Villon, etc.). The author discusses the reasons for the emphasis on the pessimistic aspects of old age in Russian folk proverbs and disparity in the inclusion of old age and ageing in the context of  " humorous " culture in Russia and in Europe. Special attention is paid to the reflection of aging in Russian literature of  the 19th century (in works of A.S.Pushkin, N.V.Gogol, I.S.Turgenev, F.I.Tutchev). The author emphasizes that today, unfortunately, for many elderly and old people are characterized by lack of development of reflection about their own life and personality; concern rather the material well-being and physical health than cognitive development; the conviction that the deterioration of memory and decline in other mental functions, is an obligate symptom of normal aging. The author makes conclusion about necessity of purposeful formation of psychological culture of aging in contemporary society and positive images of old age as an important late stage of ontogenesis.

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Poleva N.S. Paradoxes of individual and social representatives of science and art in destinies

An attempt of the analysis of influences of social and individual factors on the creative fate of representatives of the Russian science and art is made in the article. Аnalysis of publications of S.V.Kravkov of the early and middle 20th century period proves that not only problems of psychology and psychophysiology of sight which he researched also in State Academy of Arts (in Russian: GAKhN), but also methodological problems of psychology, psychology of development, pedagogical psychology fell within the scope of scientific interests of the scientist. Restriction of field of scientific research of Kravkov in the late twenties, his leaving completely in natural-science, ideologically neutral researches is considered as option of his individual strategy of coexistence with the mode at preservation of a certain degree of personal independence and a possibility of self-realization in science. The fate of scientists of Philosophical office of GAKhN (Volkov, Gabrichevsky, Zhinkin, Guber) which have escaped later cleanings and repressions prove impossibility of full creative self-realization in rigidly set framework of social space. Therefore change of a field of activity and area of scientific interests becomes the unique strategy of physical survival. Scientific and creative biographies of the philosopher and psychologist S.L.Rubenstein and the composer D.D.Shostakovich are considered as the strategy of leaving in internal space of the personality and a way of maintaining own identity. Such strategy allowed to design personal space as a shelter from the outside world and pressure of social factors, spaces of freedom and self-realization. Change of external social space on macro- and microlevel (on the example of V.Kandinsky's biography) is considered as an example of the personal strategy promoting maintaining identity and creative self-realization according to the personal choice. Strengthening of individualization is considered as the main personal resource of construction / preservation of personal space as spaces of freedom and self-realization which important components are a science and art.

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Guseltseva M.S. Identity in a transitive society: the transformation of values

The problems of the transformation of the values of generations that are socialized in the new socio-cultural reality and the possibilities for their effective study are discussed. The leading characteristics of the modern world are transitivity, transparency, heterogeneity and heterochronism, mobility and permeability of various kinds of boundaries, the contradictions of globalization, the combination of the civilization vector of the transnational culture and local cultural diversity. It is proved that the complex dynamics and diversity of sociocultural contexts supporting it, as well as the situation of value heterogeneity, where conservative and progressive trends, trunk and marginal currents of culture, very selectively fall into the visible field of analysis, must be taken into account in order to reveal the features of identity development in the modern world. Factors of methodological risk in interpreting the development of identity in a transitive society are the shift (lability) and the mixing (antinomy) of the value system, as well as the fact that more pronounced socio-cultural movements, clear trends and dominant discourses overlap and obscure in the eyes of observers latent, unobvious and ambiguous trends. It is that becomes the sphere of study and problematization of the epistemology of latency, where the notion of the heterogeneity of modernity, latent flows of culture and mixed trends makes it possible to avoid the errors of one-dimensional and linear extrapolations in studying the transformation of the values of succeeding generations. The methodology of latent change is focused on hidden processes occurring both in the depths of culture and in the diversity of its local layers, as well as the discrepancy between declarations and everyday cultural practices, analytical expectations and intrusive reality. It is argued that as a result of the generation change taking place in a globalized world, the movement from "survival values" to "self-expression values" is, although not a linear, but a strong and sustainable trend, and the development of transnational culture serves as a source of universal and postmaterialistic values, and support harmonious development of identity in the modern world.

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Khoroshilov D.A. Archaeology of everyday life and social cognition

This article is dedicated to the memory of Russian historian S.Obolenskaya. Her memoir about the Stalin era was one of the sources of my professional interest in social psychology. The following text is an attempt to understand the historical time, when «the stars of death were above us» (A.Akhmatova), from the perspective of social psychology in the scientific school founded by G.Andreeva. The article presents the analysis of everyday life, common sense knowledge and «banality of evil» (H.Arendt) in the paradigm of social cognition. Here are the key points of the research.1) Common sense knowledge is the active reflection of everyday life. 2) Social representation theory is the instrument of research of everyday life as the symbolic reality. 3) Social representations are the intersubjective forms of social cognition, which are reconstructed by the archaeological hermeneutics of phenomenology, psychoanalysis and discourse analysis. 4) The psychological archaeology of the everyday life transforms into the ethical and semiotic problem in the context of the historical and political violence, defined by the concept of collective trauma in modern social theory. 5) The problem of the symbolic representation of violence and trauma requires a paradigm shift in methodology (bridging social psychology and aesthetics). The last conclusion was predicted in the literature long before social theory and psychology (S.Obolenskaya, L.Ginzburg, N.Mandelstam).

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Sergienko E.A. Theory of Mind as an integral concept in modern psychology

The concept of the integrative character of the concept of a Theory of Mind that emerged at the intersection of various paradigms (cognitive, social cognition, subject paradigm, psycholinguistics, metacognitive approach) is substantiated. The differences between construct Theory of Mind  and similar approaches, for example, the concept of social cognition, are shown. The Theory of Mind approach allows us to proceed to an analysis of internal conceptualization (the inner world of man), to an analysis of subjective experience, to the understanding of the world by man in his individual and universal components. In addition, this approach demonstrates the transition to the integral fields of the study. Theory of Mind as an integrative concept also marks the transition from the matrix principle in the organization of scientific knowledge to the networked, system, where the concepts of various disciplines (cognitive psychology, social psychology, psycholinguistics and others) make up the components of a network or a system of concepts, allowing a new level of research and analysis, which corresponds to the current trends of psychological knowledge in the postmodern era. On the example of the characteristics of Theory of Mind in adolescence, the change is shown not only in the components of this ability, but also in their sociocultural coordinates. It is shown that teenagers become competent in understanding the complex and ambivalent emotions, but the overall trend of the schematized of the world and relationships often leads them to the simplifications and inability to combine pleasant and unpleasant emotions towards a situation or another person. Specifics of the understanding of humor, as well as a phenomenon of bulling in the context of the Theory of Mind is disclosed. It is stressed that understanding the infidel opinions thrown at pre-school age, is universal in social cognition of children in different cultures. Theory of Mind although reveals the internal mental mechanisms of understanding the world, but necessarily requires its inclusion in a broader interdisciplinary context of researches the development of the world picture and its understanding.

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Khuzeeva G.R. The study of the processes of socialization and individualization of children under school age

Successful socialization of children of senior preschool age in the space of interaction with peers is one of the predictors of successful social development in general. The modern social situation has a significant impact on the nature of communication and interaction of children with peers. The study of the features of socialization and individualization in the space of interaction with peers is an actual line of research in the social development psychology. The results of the study showed that communicative competence already in the preschool age is a complex systemic quality, which is based on the characteristics of the social perception of the child. The image of a peer in children of senior preschool age is different in that the emotional component is ahead of the development of the cognitive component in its development and determines the nature of communicative development. The degree of socialization in the space of interaction with peers is determined by the degree of success in solving communicative problems of all kinds. Communicative tasks are connected with the achievement of individual goals of circulation, also joint goals of interaction, constructive and flexible solution of problem situations and the ability to prosocial behavior. It was found that most of the children of older preschool age experience the difficulties of socialization in the space of interaction with peers. Many children have an unfavorable sociometric status, solve problem communication situations unproductive and experience difficulties in the process of achieving a joint result of interaction, only a quarter of respondents show pro-social behavior. These difficulties are caused by low sensitivity to the peer, a narrow repertoire of communication strategies and a low degree of awareness of the communication strategies used. The allocated parameters of socialization in the space of interaction with peers allow us to build individual trajectories of the communicative development of the preschool child. Individual development trajectories either expand or narrow the corridors of socialization in the space of interaction with peers. Monitoring the changes occurring in the communicative development of a preschool child and determining individual trajectories of socialization in the space of interaction with peers allows us to adequately build a system for tracking and preventing violations in this area of development.

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Dubovskaya E.M, Krasnaya M.A. The individual’s interaction with the foreign culture as the factor of civil socialization

The article is devoted to the problem of civil socialization. Modern life is becoming increasingly prevalent human interaction not only with their social environment, with its culture, but also with other, external to the personality, cultures. The increasing importance and the urgent question of the place and role of man in the social environment, the social environment, we mean as usual, in other words, "ordinary" for a person social space in which he lives and operates every day; and the "other" socio-cultural space, which supports a new, unfamiliar subject area with distinctive characteristics: territorial, historical, cultural, and other characteristics. The social environment in the broadest sense of the word acts as a determinant of civil human development, the basis of a change in his system of views and beliefs, while these transformations affect various aspects of the subject, from professional development to the issues of citizenship and civil identity. In this article we take a closer look at the study of the interaction of the individual with other cultures as a factor of civic socialization. In our study, compared data from two groups of respondents. The first is characterized by a lack of experience in the new social environment, lack of experience, other social media or visit a different social environment throughout life. This group of respondents can metaphorically mean "the Robinsons"; for the second characteristic experience long stays (from 6 months) in the new social environment or the experience of frequent visits to a different social environment (3-4 times a year). This group of respondents can metaphorically designate as "Kruzenshtern".

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Belinskaya E.P. Identification models for adolescents and youth: "heroes of our time"

The results of the empirical study of identification patterns of the respondents teenage and younger youth age, conducted in two stages: in the 2000–2001 and 2014–2015, with a total sample size of 512 are presented. Under identification models were understood to be real or fictional people whose world-views or opinions are valued by the respondent as very close, who act for him as certain role models, which suggests respect, emotional acceptance of this figure, a desire to follow that pattern at the level of personal behavior, and that this attitude is shared by the surrounding, i.e. a kind of "heroes of our time". Research methods included questionnaires, conducting focus groups, content analysis of free essays. Comparative analysis shows that in identifying patterns of adolescents and youth over the past fifteen years there have been significant changes: first, significantly reduced the number of conscious rejections from following any of the examples of "heroic", and secondly, have changed almost the entire range of possible data characteristics models. So, teenagers of the beginning of 2000-ies as role models was chosen mostly socio-family and friends by the actual interaction of the figures, which were characteristic of professionalism, financial security, expressed as citizenship, propensity to cooperation, in cooperation, honesty and responsibility. Later teenagers focused more on people who are not familiar to them in life, the characteristic which was not mentioned professional affiliations or success in the profession, whose civil position expressed in law, financial security was "typical" among personal qualities dominated the courage and the will, and among socio-psychological – willingness to defend and to come to the rescue. The only similarity for the two samples amounted to total absence among the "heroes of our time" characters of any literary or artistic works and the dominance of male figures regardless of the gender of the respondents.

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Gavrichenko O.V., Martsinkovskaya T.D. Culture as an identity creator

The influence of the social situation on the process of creativity and the identity of artists is revealed. The role of culture in a stable situation and a transitive world is shown. It is stated that this role is consisted in the reflecting of values and emotional state of society, crystallizing the changes in works of art, restoring the integrity of the identity of people. It is proved that in the situation of transitivity, the most important role of art becomes prognostic, which opens the direction of the further movement of society. Changes in the content of works of art and style of creativity of composers, artists, directors in different periods of the sociocultural situation of society are demonstrated. Transformations in the art and understanding of the purpose of creativity in the period of cardinal transformations that occurred at the XIX–XX centuries are revealed. Artists in different fields of art came to the idea that in the new time-space it will be difficult for people to be identified not only with established causal relationships, but also with established norms, stereotypes, even values that are common for all. Therefore, there was a cardinal transition from the word-plot-representations – to the image-experience. It is shown that changes in the direction of creativity of musicians, artists, and painters are refracted not only in their works, but also in the content and structure of their identity, the meaningful filling of their role functional. This allocation is revealed in an empirical study, which presents a comparative analysis of the personal characteristics of modern students of musical and theatrical higher educational institutions. Common features and differences between musicians and theatrical students, specificity of performers (actors, musicians) and organizers (directors and conductors) are revealed. Common to all students is high demonstrativeness, orientation to the future and purposefulness. At the same time actors and directors have a higher level of regulation of their emotional state and imitation of behavior. An important difference is the clearer professional component of identity, which is manifested in general for all musicians and, especially, for directors and conductors.

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Enikolopov S.N., Chudova N.V. The problem of hostile attitude

The data of our earlier studies of the connection of hostility with the constructive thinking allowed us to put forward a hypothesis about the influence of the hostile installation on the process of processing information. In particular, we assumed a leading of negative expectations to the fear of novelty, complexity and ill-structurality, and the process of generalization. It was also expected that in the cognitive sphere, hostility manifests in excessive sharpness, resoluteness of judgments, over-sureness in one’s own ability to correctly understanding in what is happening. Our empirical study was conducted on 189 subjects of different ages using 10 techniques. It made it possible to clarify the concept of the mechanism of work of the World Image as an integral formation of cognitive-affective processes, and to consider a number of various psychological characteristics as a complex of regular manifestations of the hostile attitude. It has been shown that hostility, narcissism, categorical thinking, personal insignificance feeling, anomie bias, and extra-punitive reactions constitute a system with positive feedback, where strengthening one of these qualities leads to the strengthening of all others. It was found that in adults, hostility is associated with the ill-processing of information, and in youth, there is not such a connection. In young people with high hostility, the feeling of the complexity and incomprehensibility of the world is independent of the hostile attitude, and in hostile adults, it is the danger bias that predetermines both the reaction to the new / complex and the confidence in the fidelity of one’s own "conspiracy theory". It has been suggested that the hostile image of the world, only due to the accumulation of experience begins to influence the internal "landscape" and induce the interpretive mechanisms that process information in the key of trouble-anticipating; so, the tension caused by the new / complex turns into intolerance to uncertainty, and the interest in the motives of another person's actions becomes a conviction in the accuracy of one’s own suspicions.

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