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Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles
Yaltonsky V.M., Yaltonskaya A.V., Sirota N.A., Moskovchenko D.V. Psychometric properties of the Russian version of Brief illness Perception Questionnaire
In foreign psychological studies the term "illness perception" is used to describe the basic self-regulation of health and disease. It implies cognitive and emotional representation about symptoms of the disease. This work is designated to development and assessing on the Russian-speaking population a brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ). The sample comprises 337 respondents aged between 15 to 60 years. Study included three groups of patients: patients with breast cancer (n = 100), adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n = 86), patients with depressive disorders (n = 121), adolescents with dependence syndrome from synthetic cannabinoids (n = 30). It was shown that the Russian version of brief illness perception questionnaire has a high reliability, consistency of performance, and has high test-retest reliability. Convergent validity confirmed significant correlation with anxiety, depression, cognitive strategies for coping with the situation of the disease. According to the results of regression analysis, it was found that the components of the perception of the disease have an independent contribution to the variety of cognitive strategies for coping with the situation of the disease. In particular, it is shown that such components of the perception of the disease as "Coherence", "Consequences" while reducing the "Emotional representation" contribute to the choice of strategy "Acceptance". In the choice of cognitive strategy "Perceived benefits" have cumulative impact such components of the perception of the disease as "Coherence", as well as low scores on "Emotional representation" and "Identity". The predominance of maladaptive cognitive strategies "Helplessness" is associated with the severity of illness perception components such as the "Consequences", "Emotional representation", "Timeline". In general, a brief illness perception questionnaire is a reliable tool that allows expanding the repertoire of diagnostics instruments designed to study various aspects of the internal picture of the disease.
Bulygina V.G., Dubinsky A.A., Lysenko N.E., Shmakova E.V. Modelling of the risk factors of criminal reoffending among persons with severe mental disorders
The results of the modelling of the psychopathological, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors of criminal recidivism among mentally ill males and females are presented in the article. According to obtained data the common predictors of criminal reoffending in both groups were: dysfunction in parent's family, multiple parasuicides, exogenic factors such as repeated brain injuries and drug abuse. There were revealed such gender-specific predictors of reoffending: the dynamic component disturbances of cognitive sphere among women; as well as inertia of mental processes, reduction of the amount of memorization, the low level of development of cognitive sphere – such as learning ability, competence in life situations, instability of the self-assessment, violation of self-control and self-criticism in men. Method for statistical data analysis with decision trees was applied to build the prognostic model of criminal reoffending among mentally ill persons. The models support different decisions for risk factors criminal reoffending prognosis in men and women. In men the most significant were the tendency to react due to actual situation (spontaneously), low competence in life situations, the lack of interest in treatment results, simple tasks preference, and reduced ability to the modelling of action context. In the group of women the most significant were violations of operational and dynamic aspects of mental activity. Models have a high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, efficiency and quality.
Burdukova Y. A., Alekseeva O.S., Andreeva E.V., Popov V.E. Predictors of cognitive deficit in children with brain tumor
There are a lot of evidences that the negative effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduce subsequently child's cognitive abilities. Despite of the massive data amount, there are no studies where integrated approach to assessment of anamnesis data influence on cognitive development was used. In this study we investigated the role of anamnesis' factors in the appearance of delayed cognitive deficits in children with brain tumor. The sample included 130 children with lesions of the cerebellum, the pineal regions and parietal-temporal cortical areas. Level of cognitive development was determined by using Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC and K-ABC-II). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children includes scales: Mental Processing Index, Sequential Processing Scale, Simultaneous Processing Scale, Learning Scale and Planning Scale. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate influence of such factors as gender, duration of postoperative period and neuro-oncological disease treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy). It was found out that chemotherapy and radiation therapy become determinative factors of delayed cognitive deficiency in children with neuro-oncological diseases only at cerebellar tumor localization. For children with pineal region tumors and parietal-temporal lobe tumors most important negative factors were male sex and early surgical intervention. Girls with lesions of the pineal region and parietal-temporal cortical areas show greater maintenance in verbal memory and planning function in comparison with boys. Such results can be explained by different gender localization of these cognitive functions.
Tkachenko G.A., Malivanova T.F. The dependence of situational anxiety and depression from -238(G/A)TNF polymorphism in operable breast cancer patients
Depression is a common mental disorder among cancer patients. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. The TNF gene has a single nucleotide polymorphisms -308(G/A) and -238(G/A) which affect the level of TNF protein production. Data on the association of TNF polymorphisms with depression are contradictory and mostly concern -308(G/A), whereas the -238(G/A) in this respect is almost not studied. The aim of this work was to determine the dependence of the severity of situational anxiety and depression from polymorphisms of -308(G/A) and -238(G/A) TNF gene and clinical characteristics of breast cancer (BC). 112 women aged 27 to 76 (mean age 53.3 years) were studied in the first days of stay in the clinic, prior to the operation. The diagnostic procedure was carried out as part of the clinical method based on direct examination of patients and included the analysis of the mental state, subjective and objective medical history information, medical records. The mental state was determined by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Determination of polymorphisms was performed by PCR on DNA from venous blood leukocytes. In the total group, increased level of anxiety was detected in 60.7% and increased level of depression was detected in 31.3% of patients. Increased levels of anxiety and depression was associated with a polymorphism -238(G/A) TNF gene, i.e. hereditary factor, but not with the clinical characteristics of cancer (age, stage, grade of malignancy). Among -238(AG) carriers as compared to -238(GG) carriers there was significantly higher the number of women with severe depression (66.7% and 29.0%; p=0.03), as well as the mean score of HADS-D (8.9 ± 2.8 and 4.9 ± 3.6, respectively; p=0.0017). Thus, the risk group of patients prone to reactive depression was determined. These results indicate the necessity of psychological support of patients with breast cancer and correction of depressive states.
Paper considers characteristics of social context in which generativity develops in adulthood. Social context is studied in the paradigm of factors, revealed by international researchers in the field. Family and non-family spheres are investigated as social contexts that are important for development of strive for help and support of next generations. Also we consider spheres in which generativity can be applied. We describe international approaches to generativity as a developmental task throughout adulthood; particularly we compare view of E. Erickson on generativity, based on theoretical analysis, and results from contemporary empirical studies. Participants were 133 adults (66 men and 65 women, aged 23–57). We used "Loyola generativity scale", "General behavior checklist", content-analysis of the open-ended questions, survey. We identified characteristics of family and non-family spheres that can be associated with levels of expression of generativity. Results showed the increase in generativity concern among people, working in the social sphere, showing social activity and having real people, impacted their life history (non-family factors). Particular concern was given to analysis of generativity within different professional types. Family factors, that affected generativity, were characteristics of intergenerational relationships – knowledge about their origins (family memory), and readiness for grandparental relationships. The association between family memory and generativity was assumed.
Savenysheva S.S. Marriage satisfaction factors during the period after childbirth: analysis of foreign studies
The article provides the analysis of contemporary foreign research devoted to the study of factors affecting the dynamics of the marital relationship, marriage satisfaction in the period after childbirth. The factors that influence the dynamics of the marital relationship during the transition to parenthood include: age and sex of the parent and child, marital experience; socio-economic status and parents’ work; personality traits of parent and child; the nature of spouse’s relations before the childbirth; the nature of relations in parent family; distribution of household responsibilities between the parents and the joint time of parents after the childbirth. The positive dynamics of marriage satisfaction in the period after the childbirth can be expected at such personal features as: a low level of depression, an adequate self-esteem, the sensitive and safe type of adult attachment, the child with "easy" temperament. Factors of relations system which have a positive effect on the relationship during the transition to parenthood, are: a positive relationship model in the parental family, a positive attitude and ability to constructively resolve conflicts more before childbirth, and fair and equitable sharing of domestic responsibilities after childbirth, as well as in the adequacy of time spent by the spouses together. The study of the effect of parent gender revealed contradictions in the results of research and analysis of the impact of child sex factor revealed that reducing the likelihood of marital satisfaction is higher for birth of a girl. Age factors, marital experience and socio-economic status affect negatively on the marital relationship satisfaction at the extremes of these factors.
Research is devoted to the study of value orientations in adolescence. The article contains the theoretical analysis of the main approaches to the study of the value sphere and moral development in adolescent. It investigated studies of value orientations in adolescence, including the S.Schwartz and W.Bilsky theory of universal content and structure of values. The data of empirical research shows the structure and hierarchy of value orientations of Russian teenagers. The research identified and described the hierarchy of value orientations of modern Russian teenagers, where there is a priority of following values: benevolence (preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people), self-direction, independence, reputation, independence and courage in defending their interests, freedom of choice and decision-making. This values connected with the development objectives in adolescence. The predominance of the poles of growth and development of values, freedom from anxiety, as opposed to the values of self-defense and avoidance of anxiety. Values of social self-determination and focus are found along with the focus of personal values and self-affirmation, openness to change. The lowest values of the popularity gained preservation, accented on the avoidance of change, self-restraint and order. We analyzed gender differences in the value orientations of adolescents. . The women show both preference for traditional values and qualities acting more as a masculine that correlates with the stereotype of the "New femininity". The men choose the power as preferred value that correlates with the stereotype of the "Western masculinity". Age dynamics of change of value orientations of teenagers manifested in a number of significant differences between older and younger teens. Increasing importance of the independence: actions values for older adolescents, compared with younger, connected with the developmental objectives of acquisition of Autonomy. It was found that different solutions of moral dilemmas are connected with different preferences in values. The actualization of the values is more obvious in answers with choosing of own moral behavior in a situation of conflict, rather than in answers for the hypothetical situation of the hero.
Konovalova A.M. The semantics of the concepts "respect" and "respect for parents" in adolescents and adults
The article is devoted to semantic analysis of the concepts "respect" and "respect for parents" as well as the comparison of the semantic profiles of these concepts of older adolescents and adults. The beginning of the article contains a theoretical review of the concepts of respect, shows the lack of development of this concept and the relevance of the study of respect for parents. Following are the results of an empirical study of the semantics of "respect" and "respect for parents" concepts (N = 384). Results from adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (n = 164) are compared to those from adults aged 22 to 70 years (n = 220). The study was conducted using the techniques of semantic differential (22 bipolar scales were used) and an in-house developed scale of the "respect" concept semantics comprised of 26 statements about possible definitions and meaning of the concept of "respect". Research results were processed with IBM SPSS Statistics package version 20 using the following methods: descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman rank correlation, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy, Bartlett's sphericity test, factor analysis (method: principal component analysis, rotation: varimax with Kaiser criterion). Semantic universals of the "respect" and "respect for parents" concepts are highlighted. The differences in perception of these concepts between adolescents and adults are described. The discussion of the results leads to conclusions about a more positive and cooperative attitude of the respondents to the concept of "respect for parents" in comparison with the concept of "respect", and about the difference between the views of teenagers and adults on these concepts. The work also examines the views of older adolescents and adults on what are the conditions for emerging of respect for parents and on the content of this concept. The results of the factor analysis allowed to conclude that respect for parents is interpreted as a feeling of respect for parents or prescribed respectful behavior.
The article presents the results of recent research on the subject of “Gen-Xer‘s” (born in 1967-1984) and “Millennials’” (born in 1985-2000) interpersonal relationships. These names refer to modern Strauss-Howe generational theory. However, the study, described in this article, is based on socio-cultural approach to generation on the methodological level: the generation is understood as a quality-specific group of contemporaries, who share common social and historical experience, and have similar psychological traits such as values and attitudes. The pilot and the main phases of the study involved 62 participants aged 19 to 49 years. Using survey method, based on projective technique, and content-analysis of respondents’ answers we have proved the difference between generational interpretations of the cultural content in terms of cooperation and competition, and as a consequence, the difference between of interpersonal strategies of Generation X and Millennials at the significance level of 0.01. Also a contrast between generational interpersonal strategies has been demonstrated: Generation X is prone to use the competition strategy, and Millennials are prone to use the cooperation strategy. This result supports authors' theoretical model, which claims about the impact of social and historical events on generational values and attitudes. This theory assumes that people, born in different times and undergoing various significant historical events, acquire different values, which affect, in particular on the forming of interpersonal relationships’ strategy.
Huzeeva G.R. Inter-generational interaction of elderly and young people: specifics of communication and image of old age
Article is devoted to studying of an image of old age and an image of elderly people in modern youth, also in article the structure and content of inter-generational interaction is considered. Results revealed that in adolescence the positive, idealizedimage of old age prevails. As the main determinants of safe aging the immediate environment of the person is considered. The role of the state in ensuring safe aging is not considered. The received results find a contradiction between the image of old age and the image of elderly people. The image of old age and the image of elderly people differ in both the emotional relation, and the maintenance of image. The image of elderly person is extremely contradictory. Advanced age is considered through positive categories of wisdom, kindness, care, mind, patience and diligence. Difficulties and negative sides of aging are defined by categories of rate of activity (sluggishness), bad health and difficult character. Distinctions in the relation and content of representations of image of old age and image of elderly people can speak various natures of these phenomena. The image of old age which differs in idealized character can be considered as temporary prospect of person and the image of elderly people can be considered as social ideas of old age which main property is stereotypization. The ambivalent nature of social ideas of old age affects the character and the content of inter-generational communication. The analysis of structure and content of communication shows that elderly people have the low status in structure of inter-generational communications and are not included in many spheres of communication of youth. It is revealed that many areas of information space which are the main channels of transfer of experience act as "areas of alienation" for inter-generational communication. Social interrelations of youth are carried out more in horizontal (in space of peers), than in vertical space. Results find in young people a contradiction between the expectation to be included and significant in structure of inter-generational relationship in the image of old age and the place of elderly people in system of the real social relations.
Mitina O.V., Pluzhnikov I.V. An Buridan’s ass between a rock and a hard place: operationalization and measure of ambivalence in humanities (Part 1)
This article is dedicated to the analysis of the operationalization problem and ambivalence estimation ways in quantitative research. Ambivalence is regarded as a general psychological phenomenon, which occurs in many application areas (including clinical psychology, political psychology, psychology of advertising, psychology of individual differences, and others), and is defined as a simultaneous coexistence of polar estimates of a subject with respect to any object or situation. Ambivalence is characterized by estimates intensity (from indifference through dialecticism to pathological ambivalence). The main approaches to the estimation of ambivalence - experienced and potential (objective) – are considered below. In a situation when the emphasis is on the fact that the objective ambivalence is calculated according to a formula based on antonymous relationships, the term ‘operational ambivalence’ is used. The terms ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ attitude are replaced by ‘dominant’ (maximum from two) and ‘conflicting’ (minimum from two) relations. In the following, the existing models of operational ambivalence estimation are extensively described and analyzed: the Conflicting reaction model, Similarity Intensity model, Cross-product Model, the positive acceleration model, the negative acceleration model, threshold models. All of them are estimated on the basis of the dominant and conflicting relationship values. It is also proposed an alternative method of ambivalence calculation based on the dominant and conflicting relationships ratio determined by a researcher and recognized as ambivalent (parameterized model). To facilitate the understanding of the article, all the ambivalence estimation models are not only defined in formulas, but also in a tabular form for different values of the dominant and conflicting relationships, and graphically as a surface in three-dimensional space.
The current situation in the knowledge is characterized by the different expectations of global transformations, more gazing into modernity and the anticipation of approaches, some of which can be described as the everyday life psychology. In this area, the psychological science strives, on the one hand, to respond to new challenges in the course of rebuilding and reinventing research strategies, and on the other – to use tested methods of anthropological sciences in order to find a man lost for the study of certain mental processes, functions and leading activities. The everyday life psychology claims to historical human life and integrity. It studies the subjective representation of the world of its life in the present, so one way or the other cultural and historical epoch. This article discusses the everyday life psychology as a special research area, and its formation is considered in connection with the general evolution of the social sciences and humanities. The everyday life was initially the subject of multidisciplinary research. The ideology and methodology of the study of everyday life evolved here as a general scientific paradigm of socio-humanitarian knowledge, which showed its own peculiarities in different research areas. Thus, throughout the twentieth century arose the everyday life anthropology, the everyday life history, the everyday life sociology, the everyday life semiotics, etc. A similar trend of increasing interest in the everyday life took place in literary criticism and in art criticism that was partly due to the spirit of postmodernism that democratized knowledge and mixed different genres, high and low, sacred and profane. It is argued that the everyday life psychology has two analytical perspective: firstly, such approaches have already appeared in the history of psychology, but under other names; secondly, its modern updated meets not only the challenges of the present time, but also the general logic of the development of social sciences and humanities, humanizing society and revealing the significance of the everyday person.