Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


Sokolova E.T., Ivanishchuk G.A. The problem of conscious and unconscious manipulations

Full text in Russian: Соколова Е.Т., Иванищук Г.А. Проблема сознательной и бессознательной манипуляции
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

About authors
Suggested citation

Phenomenological and theoretical diversity of approaches to manipulation is considered. The control over an individual (controlled behavior) without regard to his/her own emotions and needs is a common theme within these approaches. The key criterion of distinction which determines manipulation pragmatic effects, satiable needs, behavior strategies and their relatedness to ethical norms is conscious or unconscious character of manipulations. Machiavellianism as a system of conscious attitudes and corresponding manipulative strategies is based on instrumental needs whereas projective identification as an archaic defense form of manipulation relates to vital needs and in this sense is beyond the frames of ethical systems. However, the excessiveness of both conscious and unconscious forms of manipulation indicates an inner misbalance: based on different studies data, Machiavellianism is related to the whole complex of dysfunctional traits while projective identification as a primitive mechanism is a part of borderline personality structure.

Keywords: manipulation, machiavellianism, projective identification



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 Received 12 March 2013. Date of publication: 27 April 2013.

About authors

Sokolova Elena T. Ph.D., Professor, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, ul. Mokhovaya, 11, str. 9, 125009 Moscow, Russia.
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Ivanishchuk Galina A. Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, ul. Mokhovaya, 11, str. 9, 125009 Moscow, Russia.
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Suggested citation

Sokolova E.T., Ivanishchuk G.A. The problem of conscious and unconscious manipulations. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2013, Vol. 6, No. 28, p. 3. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

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