Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


2018 Vol 11 Issue 61

Popova R.R., Bayanova L.F., Veraksa A.N., Kochetkova E.A. Psychological features of recognition of emotions in preschoolers with different levels of cultural congruence

Full text in Russian: Попова Р.Р., Баянова Л.Ф., Веракса А.Н., Кочеткова Е.А. Психологические особенности распознавания эмоций у дошкольников при разном уровне культурной конгруэнтности

Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

About authors
Suggested citation

The results of the empirical research of emotion recognition in preschoolers having different levels of compliance of their behavior with invariant cultural rules, typical of the given age, are presented. The study was based on the model of the hierarchical organization of emotional sphere [Pons et al., 2004; Harris, 2008] which is supposed to distinguish between the external, mental and reflexive levels of its consecutive differentiation. Test battery consisted of the methods that allowed to determine different aspects of emotion recognition, including subtests of NEPSY–II. The study was conducted in the kindergartens of Tatarstan in 2017-2018. The participants were preschoolers aged 5-6 (N = 225) and their mothers (N = 225). In the process of research, it was possible to distinguish groups of children having different levels of cultural congruence and to demonstrate the characteristics of emotion recognition in children of these groups. It has been found that a higher accuracy of recognizing emotions from faces (out of the situational context) was more characteristic of children with the “high” and “low” levels of cultural congruence. The same groups of children were characterized by a higher level of anxiety in the social situations. At the same time, the accuracy of recognizing certain emotions by facial expression, as well as the recognition and comprehension of the emotions of others in the context of the situation, did not show a significant connection with the level of cultural congruence. Moreover, the differences in comprehending the social context of situations and the causes of emotions experienced could be observed as trends and depended on the content of the situations offered to children and the way in which specific situations combined the semantic and emotional aspects.

Keywords: emotion recognition, normative situation, cultural congruence, preschool age, test battery NEPSY-II


The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research, project 17-29-02092.


Adolphs R. Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Psychological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioural Cognitive Neuroscience, 2002, Vol. 1, 21–62. doi: 10.1177/1534582302001001003

Almazova O.V., Bukhalenkova D.A., Veraksa A.N. Natsional'nyi psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2016, 4(24), 14–22. (in Russian)

Batty M., Taylor M.J. The development of emotional face processing during childhood. Developmental Science, 2006, 9(2), 207–220.

Bayanova L., Mustafin T. Factors of compliance of a child with rules in a Russian cultural context. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 2016, 24(3), 357–364. doi: 10.1080/1350293X.2016.1164394 (in Russian)

Bayanova L.F. Psikhologiya doshkol'nika v normativnoi situatsii [Psychology of the preschooler in the regulatory situation]. Kazan: Kazan. gos. universitet, 2017. (in Russian)

Bayanova L.F., Mustafin T.R. Filologiya i kul'tura, 2015, 3(41), 325–332. (in Russian)

Bodalev A.A. Lichnost' i obshchenie [Personality and communication]. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1983. (in Russian)

Cole P.M., Tan P.Z. Emotion socialization from a cultural perspective. In: J.E. Grusec, P.D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2007. pp. 516–542.

De Gelder B., Huis in’t Veld E.M.J. Cultural differences in emotional expressions and body language. In: J.Y. Chiao, S.-Ch. Li, R. Seligman, R. Turner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of cultural neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. pp. 223–237. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199357376.013.16

De Sonneville L.M., Verschoor C.A., Njiokiktjien C., Op het Veld V., Toorenaar N., Vranken M. Facial identity and facial emotions: Speed, accuracy, and processing strategies in children and adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 2002, 24(2), 200–213.

Denham S., Kochanoff A.T. Parental contributions to preschoolers’ understanding of emotion. Marriage and Family Review, 2002, Vol. 34, 311–343.

Denham S.A. Emotional development in children. New York, NY: Guildford Press, 1998.

Denham S.A., Caverly S., Schmidt M., Blair K.A., De Mulder E., Caal S., Hamada H., Mason T. Preschool understanding of emotions: Contributions to classroom anger and aggression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2002, Vol. 43, 901–916.

Denham S.A., McKinley M., Couchoud E.A., Holt R. Emotional and behavioral predictors of preschool peer ratings. Child Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1145–1152. doi: 10.2307/1130882

Dunsmore J.C., Halberstadt A.G. The dynamic cultural context of emotion socialization. In: J.A. Mancini, K.A. Roberto (Eds.), Pathways of human development: Explorations of change. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2009. pp. 171–190.

Durgel E.S., Leyendecker B., Yagmurlu B., Harwood R. Sociocultural influences on German and Turkish immigrant mothers' long-term socialization goals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2009, Vol. 40, 834–852. doi: 10.1177/0022022109339210

Garner P.W., Waajid B. The associations of emotion knowledge and teacher-child relationships to preschool children’s school-related developmental competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2008, Vol. 29, 89–100.

Granskaya Yu.V. PhD dissertation (Psychology). St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 1998. (in Russian)

Harris P.L. Children’s understanding of emotion. In: M. Lewis, J.M. Haviland-Jones, L.F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd edition). New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2008. pp. 320–331.

Herba C., Phillips M. Annotation: Development of facial expression recognition from childhood to adolescence: Behavioural and neurological perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2004, 45(7), 1185–1198.

Izard C., Fine S., Schultz D., Mostow A., Ackerman B., Youngstrom E. Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychology Science, 2001, Vol. 12, 18–23.

Karelina I.O. Razvitie ponimaniya emotsii v period doshkol'nogo detstva: psikhologicheskii rakurs [The development of understanding of emotions in the period of preschool childhood: a psychological perspective]. Praga: Sociosféra-CZ, 2017. (in Russian)

Kleinsmith A., De Silva P.R., Bianchi-Bcrthouzc N. Cross-cultural differences in recognizing affect from body posture. Interacting with Computers, 2006, Vol. 18, 1371–1389. doi: 10.1016/j.intcom.2006.04.003

Kohlberg L. My personal search for universal morality. In: L. Kuhmerker (Ed.), The Kohlberg legacy for the helping professions. Birmingham, AL: R.E.P. Books, 1991. pp. 11–17.

Korkman M., Kirk U., Kemp S.L. NEPSY II. Administrative manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, 2007.

Leerkes E., Paradise M., O’Brien M., Calkins S.D., Lange G. Emotion and cognition processes in preschool children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2008, Vol. 54, 102–124.

Lemerise E.A., Arsenio W.F. An integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 2000, Vol. 71, 107–118.

Listik E.M. PhD dissertation (Psychology). Moscow State University, Moscow, 2003. (in Russian)

Matsumoto D., Takeuchi S., Andayani S., Kouznetsova N., Krupp D. The contribution of individualism-collectivism to cross-national difference in display rules. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1998, Vol. 1, 147–165.

Meissner C.A., Brigham J.C. Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces – a meta-analytic review. Psychology Public Policy and Law, 2001, Vol. 7, 3–35. doi: 10.1037//1076-8971.7.1.3

Niedenthal P., Krauth-Gruber S., Ric F. Psychology of emotion: Interpersonal, experiential, and cognitive approaches. New York, NY: Psychology Press, 2006.

Pons F., Harris P.L. Rosnay M. Emotional comprehension between 3 and 11 years: Developmental periods and hierarchical organization. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2004, 1(2), 127–152. doi: 10.1080/17405620344000022

Repina T.A. Voprosy psikhologii, 1960, Vol. 5, 115–124. (in Russian)

Rocha A.A., Roazzi A., Silva A.L., Candeias A.A., Minervino C.A., Roazzi M.M., Pons F. Test of emotion comprehension: Exploring the underlying structure through confirmatory factor analysis and similarity structure analysis. In: A. Roazzi, B.C. de Souza, W. Bilsky (Eds.), Facet theory: Searching for structure in complex social, cultural and psychological phenomena. Recife: Editora UFPE, 2015. pp. 66–84.

Rogov E.L. Nastol'naya kniga prakticheskogo psikhologa: Uchebnoe posobie [Handbook of practical psychologist: Textbook.]. Moscow: VLADOS, 1999. (in Russian)

Saarni C. The Development of emotional competence. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1999.

Shields A., Dickstein S., Seifer R., Giusti L., Magee K.D., Spritz B. Emotion competence and early school adjustment: A study of preschoolers at risk. Early Education and Development, 2001, Vol. 12, 73–96.

Sobkin V.S., Veraksa A.N., Bukhalenkova D.A., Fedotova A.V., Khalutina U.A., Yakupova V.A. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2016, 9(4), 106–122. (in Russian)

Soto J.A., Levenson R.W., Ebling R. Cultures of moderation and expression: Emotional experience, behavior, and physiology in Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans. Emotion, 2005, 5(2), 154–165. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.2.154

Sventsitskaya Yu.A.. PhD dissertation (Psychology). St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 1992. (in Russian)

Trentacosta C.J., Fine S.E. Emotion knowledge, social competence, and behavior problems in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review. Social Development, 2010, Vol. 19, 1–29. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00543.x

Trentacosta C.J., Izard C.E. Kindergarten children’s emotion competence as a predictor of their academic competence in first grade. Emotion, 2007, Vol. 7, 77–88.

Veraksa A.N., Yakupova V.A., Almazova O.V., Bukhalenkova D.A., Rikel A.M. Teoriya i praktika, 2016, Vol. 6, 38–45. (in Russian)

Veraksa N.E. Peremeny, 2000, Vol. 1, 81–107. (in Russian)

Widen S.C., Russell J.A. Children acquire emotion categories gradually. Cognitive Development, 2008, Vol. 23, 291–312.

Wong S., Bond M.H., Rodriguez P.M. The influence of cultural value orientations on self-reported emotional expression across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2008, Vol. 39, 224–229. doi: 10.1177/0022022107313866

Received 3 September 2018. Date of publication: 21 October 2018.

About authors

Popova Rezeda R. Senior Lecturer, Department of Pedagogical Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Pedagogy, Kazan Federal University, ul. Meshlauka, 1, 420021 Kazan, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Bayanova Larisa F. 
Ph.D., Head of the Department of Pedagogical Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Pedagogy, Kazan Federal University, ul. Meshlauka, 1, 420021 Kazan, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Veraksa Alexander N. Ph.D., Head of the Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, ul. Mochovaya, 11–9, 125008 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Kochetkova Ekaterina A. Master student, Department of Pedagogical Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Pedagogy, Kazan Federal University, ul. Meshlauka, 1, 420021 Kazan, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Popova R.R., Bayanova L.F., Veraksa A.N., Kochetkova E.A. Psychological features of recognition of emotions in preschoolers with different levels of cultural congruence. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2018, Vol. 11, No. 61, p. 6. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>