Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

2020 Vol. 13 Issue 70

Allakhverdov V. Stating problems and introducing hypotheses in psychological research

Russian version: Аллахвердов В.М. Постановка проблем и формулировка гипотез в психологическом исследовании.

Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation

About authors
Suggested citation

We assume that the replication crisis in psychology mainly derives from poorly formulated study problems and hypotheses. We propose four variants of study problem’s formulation together with hypotheses aimed at solving these problems. (1) A paradox problem occurs when the indisputable empirical data contradicts the solid knowledge (logic, laws, etc.). The main way of resolution is to hypothesize a reason for such paradox. Empirical confirmation of such hypothesis might lead to the revision of existing knowledge. A few unresolved paradoxes in psychology are described. (2) A search problem occurs when a phenomenon is known to exist, but we do not know how to measure it and therefore its properties. Developing a method aimed at solving the problem can help. In this unit we consider direct and indirect ways of research. (3) A puzzle problem occurs when there is a need to incorporate an accidentally discovered and unexpected phenomenon into existing knowledge. Usually the solution of such problem broadens the existing knowledge. (4) A verification problem occurs when we need to verify if a phenomenon exists or this is just an artefact. Verification problem is also related to hypotheses’ validation. We recommend to clearly specify study problems and hypotheses while preparing a scientific paper.

Keywords: psychological research, consciousness, hypothesis statement, paradox problem, search problem, puzzle problem, verification problem

Full text in Russian >>

Funding

The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 20-03-00778)

References
 

Avgustin. Ispoved'. M.: Renessans, 1991. (in Russian)

Agassi Dzh. Nauka v dvizhenii // Struktura i razvitie nauki: iz Bostonskih issledovanij po filosofii nauki. M.: Progress, 1978. (in Russian)

Adamar ZH. Issledovanie psihologii izobreteniya v matematike. M.: Sov. radio, 1970. (in Russian)

Allahverdov V.M. Soznanie kak paradoks. SPb.: DNK, 2000. (in Russian)

Allahverdov V.M. Soznanie i svoboda voli // ZHurnal VND. 2017, 67, 6, 734–738. (in Russian)

Allahverdov V.M. Soznanie. Poisk putej resheniya vechnyh problem // Vesci BDPU. Seryya 1. 2019. 3. 66–71, 4. 56–60. (in Russian)

Gal'perin P.YA. Vvedenie v psihologiyu. M.: MGU, 1976. (in Russian)

Gerbart I. Psihologiya. M.: Territoriya budushchego, 2007. (in Russian)

Gyote I.V. Izbr. soch. po estestvoznaniyu. M.: AN SSSR, 1957. (in Russian)

Velichkovskij B.B. Rabochaya pamyat' cheloveka. Struktura i mekhanimzmy. M.: Kogito-centr, 2015. (in Russian)

Darvin CH. Izbrannye pis'ma. M.: Inostrannaya literatura, 1950. (in Russian)

Dyubua-Rejmon E. O predelah poznaniya prirody. Mogilev na Dnepre: izd. perevodchikov, 1873. (in Russian)

Zinchenko V.P., Vergiles N.YU. Formirovanie zritel'nogo obraza. M.: MGU, 1969. (in Russian)

Zinchenko V.P., Morgunov E.B. CHelovek razvivayushchijsya. M.: Trivola. 1994. (in Russian)

Il'enkov E.V. Dialekticheskaya logika. M., 1984. (in Russian)

Kant I. Traktaty i pis'ma. M.: Nauka, 1980. (in Russian)

Lakatos I. Metodologiya issledovatel'skih programm. M.: AST, 2003. (in Russian)

Moroshkina N.V., Gershkovich V.A. Tipologiya empiricheskih issledovanij v psihologii // Vestnik SPbGU, seriya 16, 2016, vyp. 1, 80–99. (in Russian)

Pavlov I.P. Refleks svobody. SPb.: Piter, 2001. (in Russian)

Polani M. Lichnostnoe znanie. M.: Progress, 1985. (in Russian)

Rassel B. Iskusstvo myslit'. M.: Gnozis, 1999. (in Russian)

Revonsuo A. Psihologiya soznaniya. SPb.: Piter, 2013. (in Russian)

Horgan Dzh. Konec nauki: vzglyad na ogranichennost' znaniya na zakate Veka Nauki. SPb.: Amfora, 2001. (in Russian)

Frankl V. CHelovek v poiskah smysla. M.: Progress. 1990. (in Russian)

Flores C. Pamyat' // Eksperimental'naya psihologiya (Fress P., Piazhe ZH. – red.). M.: Progress, 1973, vyp. IV, 209–312. (in Russian)

Yulina N.S. Tajna soznaniya: al'ternativnye strategii issledovaniya. CH.1 // Voprosy filosofii, 2004, 10, 125–135. (in Russian)

Abdel Rahman R., Melinger A. Semantic context effects in language production: A swinging lexical network proposal and a review. Language and Cognitive Processes, 2009, vol. 24, pp. 713–734.

Allakhverdov V. et al. Consciousness, Learning, and Control. On the path to a theory // Implicit Learning. 50 Years On (ed. A. Cleervans, V. Allakhverdov, M.L. Kuvaldina). N.Y.: Routledge, 2019, 71–107.

Block N., Stalnaker R. Conceptual analysis, dualism and the explanatory gap // Philosophical Review. 1000, 108: 1–46.

Boring E. Intelligence as the Tests Test It. New Republic, 1923, 36, pp. 35–37.

Hui-Qi Qu, Tien M., Polychronakos С. Statistical significance in genetic association studies // Clinical & Investigative Medicine. 2010, 33(5), 266–270.

Haig B., Borsboom D. Truth, science, and psychology // Theory and Psychology, 2012, 22(3), 272–289.

Huxley T. Lessons on Elementary Physiology, 8. London, 1866.

Levelt W.J.M., Roelofs A., Meyer A.S. A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1999, vol. 22, pp. 1–38.

Levine J. Materialism and qualia: the explanatory gap // Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 1983, 64, р. 354–361.

Oberauer K. Access in information in Working Memory // Journal of Experimental Psychology Leaning. Memory and Cognition, 2002, 28, 2, 411–421.

Sachs-Hombach K., Philosophische Psychologie im 19. Jahrhundert: Einstehung und Problemgeschichte. Freiburg/München: Alber, 1993.

Soon C., Brass M., Heinze H.-J., Haynes J.-D. Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain // Nature Neuroscience. 2008. 11(5). 543–545.

Stanley T.D., Carter E.C., Doucouliagos H. What meta-analyses reveal about the replicability of psychological research // Psychological Bulletin, 2018, 144(12), 1325–1346.

Van Helden A. On Motion. The Galileo Project. 1995. http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/theories/on_motion.html

Received 31 March 2020. Date of publication: 14 May 2020

About author

Allakhverdov Victor Michaylovich, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of General Psychology, St.Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Embankment, 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia.
Email: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Allakhverdov V. Stating problems and introducing hypotheses in psychological research. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2020, Vol. 13, No. 70, p. 4. http://psystudy.ru (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL: http://psystudy.ru/index.php/eng/2020v13n70e/1760-allahverdov70e.html

Back to top >>