Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


2020 Vol. 13 Issue 71

Shalyapin A.A., Danina M.M. Studies of the effect of presence in virtual reality: current status and perspective

Full text in Russian: Шаляпин А.А., Данина М.М. Исследования эффекта присутствия в виртуальной реальности: современное состояние и перспективы

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia

About author
Suggested citation

The article discusses modern studies of the presence effect – a psychological phenomenon, which consists of the illusion of presence in a virtual environment created by special hardware. Technical, content-related and subjective factors that influence the presence effect are considered. The subjective and objective methods of measuring the presence effect are analyzed. Factors disrupting the experience of immersion in a virtual environment are addressed. Problems and challenges encountered by researchers and developers of virtual reality technologies are outlined.

Keywords: presence effect, virtual reality, measurement of subjective experience, cybersickness, sensory conflict, postural control.

Full text in Russian >>

Cyrillic letters are transliterated according to BSI standards. The titles are given in author’s translation.

Bonato F., Bubka A., Palmisano S., Phillip D., Moreno G. Vection change exacerbates simulator sickness in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2008, 17(3), 283–292.

Brinkman W.-P., Hoekstra A.R.D., van Egmond R. The Effect Of 3D Audio And Other Audio Techniques On Virtual Reality Experience. Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 2015. Vol. 219, 44–48.

Broeck M.V.D., Kawsar F., Schöning J. It's All Around You: Exploring 360° Video Viewing Experiences on Mobile Devices. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Multimedia Conference, 2017.

Cobb S.V., Nichols S., Ramsey A., Wilson J.R. Virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects (VRISE). Presence, 1999, 8(2), 169–186.

Coelho C., Tichon J., Hine T.J., Wallis G., Riva G. Media presence and inner presence: the sense of presence in virtual reality technologies. From communication to presence: Cognition, emotions and culture towards the ultimate communicative experience. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2006. 25–45.

Davis S., Nesbitt K., Nalivaiko E. A Systematic Review of Cybersickness, 2014. 1–9.

Demer J., Alpers G.W., Peperkorn H.M., Shiban Y., Mühlberger A. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality. Frontiers in psychology, 2015, 6, 26.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00026

DiZio P., R.Lackner J. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1992, 1:3, 319–328.

Fernandes A.S., Feiner S.K. Combating VR sickness through subtle dynamic field-of-view modification. 2016 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI). Greenville: SC, 2016. 201–210.

Fonseca D., Kraus M. A comparison of head-mounted and hand-held displays for 360° videos with focus on attitude and behavior change. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 20th International Academic Mindtrek Conference, 2016.

Freeman J., Avons S.E., Meddis R., Pearson D.E., Ijsselsteijn W. Using behavioral realism to estimate presence: A study of the utility of postural responses to motion stimuli. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000, 9(2), 149–164.

Hu J., Janse M.D., Kong H. User evaluation on a distributed interactive movie. In: 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Las Vegas: HCI International, 2005.

IJsselsteijn W., de Ridder H., Freeman J., Avons S.E., Bouwhuis D. Effects of stereoscopic presentation, image motion, and screen size on subjective and objective corroborative measures of presence. Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, 2001, 10(3), 298–311.

Kasahara S., Nagai S., Rekimoto J. First person omnidirectional video: System design and implications for immersive experience. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for TV and Online Video, 2015.

Kaul O., Meier K., Rohs M. Increasing Presence in Virtual Reality with a Vibrotactile Grid Around the Head, 2017, 289–298.

Keshavarz B., Hecht H. Stereoscopic viewing enhances visually induced motion sickness but sound does not. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2012, 21(2), 213–228.

Kovalev A.I., Menshikova G.Ya. Vector in virtual environments: psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms of formation. National Psychological Journal. 2015. 4 (20). 91–104. (in Russian)

Kwon B., Kim J., Lee K., Lee Y.K., Park S., Lee S. Implementation of a virtual training simulator based on 360 multi-view human action recognition. IEEE Access, 2017, 5, 12496–12511.doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2723039

Larsson P., Västfjäll D., Olsson P., Kleiner M. When what you hear is what you see: Presence and auditory-visual integration in virtual environments. Proceedings of Presence, 2007.

Lee E.A.-L., Wong K.W. A review of using virtual reality for learning. In: Z. Pan, A.D. Cheok, W. Müller, A. El Rhalibi (Eds.), Transactions on edutainment I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. 231–241. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69744-2_18

Lessiter J., Freeman J., Keogh E., Davidoff J. A cross-media presence questionnaire: the itc-sense of presence inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2001, 10(3), 282–297. doi:10.1162/105474601300343612

Lin J.-W., Duh H.B.-L., Parker D.E., Abi-Rached H., Furness T.A. Effects of field of view on presence, enjoyment, memory, and simulator sickness in a virtual environment. Paper presented at the Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002.

Lombard M., Ditton T. At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 1997, 3.

Lugrin J.-L. Anthropomorphism and Illusion of Virtual Body Ownership. ICAT-EGVE '15: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and 20th Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments, 2015, 1–8.

Nacke L., Lindley C. Boredom, Immersion, Flow – a Pilot Study Investigating Player Experience. In: Proceedings of the IADIS Gaming 2008: Design for Engaging Experience and Social Interaction. Amsterdam, The Netherland: IADIS Press, 2008, July 25–27, 103–107.

Nichols S., Haldane C., Wilson J.R. Measurement of presence and its consequences in virtual environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 2000, 52(3), 471–491. doi:10.1006/ijhc.1999.0343

Palmisano S., Silvestri M., Giuricin M. еt al. Preoperative Predictive Factors of Successful Weight Loss and Glycaemic Control 1 Year After Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity. OBES SURG, 2015, 25, 2040–2046. doi:10.1007/s11695-015-1662-2

Pan X., Gillies M., Barker C., Clark D.M., Slater M. Socially Anxious and Confident Men Interact with a Forward Virtual Woman: An Experimental Study. PLOS ONE, 2012, 7(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032931

Rebenitsch L., Owen C. Review on cybersickness in applications and visual displays. Virtual Reality, 2016, 20(2), 101–125.

Riccio G.E., Stoffregen T.A. An ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecological Psychology, 1991, 3, 195–240.

Riva G., Davide F., Ijsselsteijn W.A. Being there: Concepts, effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Ios Press, 2003.

Ruddle R.A. The effect of environment characteristics and user interaction on levels of virtual environment sickness. Paper presented at the null, 2004.

Schubert T., Friedmann F., Regenbrecht H. The Experience of Presence: Factor Analytic Insights. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2001, June, 10(3), 266–281. doi:10.1162/105474601300343603.

Shin D., Biocca F. Exploring immersive experience in journalism what makes people empathize with and embody immersive journalism? New Media and Society, 2017, 19(11), 1–24. doi:10.1177/1461444817733133

Slater M., Wilbur S. A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments Five: Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1997, December, 6(6), 603–616. doi:10.1162/pres.1997.6.6.603

Slater M. Measuring Presence: A Response to the Witmer and Singer Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1999, October, 8(5), 560–565. doi:10.1162/105474699566477

Slater M. Place Illusion and Plausibility Can Lead to Realistic Behavior in Immersive Virtual Environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 2009, 364(1535), 3549–3557. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0138

So R.H., Lo W., Ho A.T. Effects of navigation speed on motion sickness caused by an immersive virtual environment. Human Factors, 2001, 43(3), 452–461.

Vorderer P., Wirth W., Gouveia F.R., Biocca F., Saari T., Jäncke F., Jäncke P. Mec spatial presence questionnaire (mec-spq): short documentation and instructions for application. In: Report to the european community, project presence, 2004.

Weibel D., Wissmath B., Fred W. Mast. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 2010, June, 251–256. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0171

Wiederhold B.K., Davis R., Wiederhold M.D. The effects of immersiveness on physiology. In: G. Riva, B.K. Wiederhold, E. Molinari (Eds.), Studies in health technology and informatics. Virtual environments in clinical psychology and neuroscience: Methods and techniques in advanced patient–therapist interaction, IOS Press, 1998. Vol. 58, 52–60.

Witmer B.G., Singer M.J. Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1998, June, 7(3), 225–240. doi:10.1162/105474698565686

Yildirim C., Bostan B., Berkman M.I. Impact of different immersive techniques on the perceived sense of presence measured via subjective scales. Entertainment Computing, 2019. Vol. 31, 100308, ISSN 1875–9521.doi:10.1016/j.entcom.2019

Received 06 March 2020. Date of publication: 30 June 2020.

About author

Shalyapin Alexander Anatolyevich. Lecturer at MSU, Faculty of Journalism, 9/1 Mokhovaya str., 125009, Moscow, Russia
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Danina Mariya Mikhailovna. PhD. Senior Researcher. Laboratory of Psychological Counseling and psychotherapy. Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, 9/4 Mokhovaya str., 125009, Moscow, Russia
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Shalyapin A.A., Danina M.M. Studies of the effect of presence in virtual reality: current status and perspective. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2020, Vol. 13, No. 71, p. 6. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>

Related Articles