2010 Appendix 1(9)
E.I.Boyko’s scientific school of psychology
In Russian version of Appendix 1(9) the articles devoted E.I.Boyko’s scientific school of psychology are published. Source: the special issue of Psychology. The Journal of the Higher School of Economics. Full texts of the articles in Russian are posted on a website with authorization of the editor.
Psychology. The Journal of the Higher School of Economics. 2009. Vol. 6, No. 1.
• T.N. Ushakova, N.I. Chuprikova. Editorial
• E.I. Boyko. Actualgenesis and Self-expansion of Information during its Processing by Human Brain
• A.N. Zhdan. Scientific Psychological Schools in Russia: E.I. Boyko's School
The article outlines the main directions of research of higher cognitive functions and their psychophysiological mechanisms in the framework of E.I. Boyko's scientific school. The fact that the achievements of the school are not widely covered in our science is emphasized. The conclusion is drawn that it is necessary to master this school's studies more actively.
Keywords:E.I. Boyko, scientific school, cognitive psychology, method of testing stimulus
• N.I. Chuprikova. Studies of Physiological Mechanisms of Conscious Verbal-Semantic Executive Functions in the Framework of E.I. Boyko's School and Modern Psychophysiology of Consciousness
The results of E.I. Boyko's school's studies devoted to psychophysiological mechanisms of human verbal-semantic executive functions are examined from the standpoint of modern notions of psychophysiology of consciousness and central executive processes. Original psychophysiological method of testing stimulus is described. It allows to operationalize I.P. Pavlov's metaphor of presence of the "light spots of consciousness" in a working brain. It is shown that in the process of conscious goal-directed activity focuses of locally increased selective excitation do really appear in human's cerebral cortex. They are created as a result of synthesis and integration of two flows of excitation. The first one is from the active irritants and the second one is from executive influences of second signal system. It is shown that "light spots of consciousness" are often accompanied by "dark spots" in the form of cortical areas of locally decreased excitation. These areas appear in projections of irritants irrelevant to the goal-directed activity. It is shown that method of testing stimulus allows to measure intensity of "light and dark spots of consciousness" and to follow its formation in the duration of time.
Keywords: central executive processes, prior instructions, consciousness, method of testing stimulus, "light spots of consciousness", "dark spots of consciousness", cortical focuses of locally increased and decreased excitation
• T.N. Ushakova. On the Mechanisms of Human Verbal Processes
The directions of research outlined in E.I. Boyko's works and elaborated by a group of his followers under the scientific supervision of T.N. Ushakova are described. The article discusses the materials of verbal mechanisms research; which are studied not just with the method of testing stimulus (measurement of voluntary motor reaction) but also with non-voluntary reactions, EEG in the first place; functioning of principle of dynamic temporary ties in human verbal activity.
Keywords: mechanisms of verbal activity, electrophysiological research of speech, model of choice of a word from lexicon
• N.N. Danilova. Noninvasive Reflection of Local Neural Networks Activity in à Human from the Data of Multi-channel EEG Registration
A new experimental approach towards the study of structure and dynamic of cognitive processes based on the pacemaker hypothesis about the origin of high-frequency rates of EEG is proposed. To test the hypothesis a new method of micro-structure analysis of brain oscillatory activity has been elaborated. It includes narrow-band frequency filtrating of event-related potentials (ERP), calculation of equivalent current dipoles from the data of multi-channel EEG and their superposition on the structural tomographic magnetic resonance slice of an individual's brain. A new electroencephalographic index of local neural networks activity as frequency selective gamma- or beta-generators characterized by high discreteness of their activity in time and space and imaging pacemaker neurons activity in local networks has been revealed. Frequency selective generators integrate local neural networks into systems due to synchronization of their activity on a common frequency. It happens in case of its phase binding to stimulus and also as a result of periodically appearing bursts of joint activity of many generators working on different frequencies. Maps of spatial localization of equivalent dipole sources of activated frequency selective generators reveal types of interaction of focuses of activity and their changing in the duration of time. When localized dipoles of frequency-selective generators are projected on anatomic magnetic resonance tomograms of individual brain, accuracy of mapping of activated brain areas is increased. Micro-structural analysis of brain oscillatory activity compensateû disadvantages of tomographic methods connected with their low time resolution. Efficiency of the suggested approach in revealing local neural networks activity in human brain is viewed within the framework of research direction earlier established in E.I. Boyko's neurodynamic theory.
Keywords: frequency selective generator, synchronization of oscillations, equivalent dipole, pacemaker neuron, local neural network, structural magnetic resonance tomography