Преодолевая экономию когнитивной обработки: распознавание, подавление и способы мышления


  • Кит Станович



Ключевые слова:

рациональное мышление, когнитивные искажения, решение задач на эвристики, распознавание, подавление и способы мышления


Ошибки в решении задач на эвристики и когнитивные искажения случаются по разным причинам. Чтобы в них разобраться, в этой главе рассматриваются три ментальные характеристики, необходимые для рационального мышления: распознавание, подавление и способы мышления. Неполадки в их работе можно разделить на две категории ошибок – экономия когнитивной обработки и проблемы в способах мышления. Предъявляя различные требования к ментальным характеристикам, задачи на эвристики и когнитивные искажения позволяют увидеть, где произошел сбой в случае ошибки. Классификация ошибок проиллюстрирована примерами задач на эвристики и когнитивные искажения.


Данные скачивания пока недоступны.


Кит Станович

Кит Э. Станович. Почетный профессор кафедры прикладной психологии и человеческого развития Университета Торонто, 252 Блур Стрит Уэст, Торонто, ON M5S 1V6 Канада Email: kstanovich@gmail.com


Ainslie, G. (2001). Breakdown of will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ainslie, G. (2005). Precise of Breakdown of will. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 635–673.

Alcock, J. (2005). Animal behavior: An evolutionary approach (8th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.

Barkow, J. H. (1989). Darwin, sex, and status: Biological approaches to mind and culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Bateson, M., Healy, S. D., & Hurly, A. (2002). Irrational choices in hummingbird foraging behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 63, 587–596.

Bateson, M., Healy, S. D., & Hurly, A. (2003). Context-dependent foraging decisions in rufous hummingbirds. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 270, 1271–1276.

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Willpower, choice and self-control. In G. Loewenstein, D. Read, & R. Baumeister (Eds.), Time and decision: Economic and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice. pp. 201–216. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. New York: Guilford Press.

Bermudez, J. L. (2001). Normativity and rationality in delusional psychiatric disorders. Mind and Language, 16, 457–493.

Binmore, K. (2009). Rational decisions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Dawes, R. M. (1976). Shallow psychology. In J. S. Carroll & J. W. Payne (Eds.), Cognition and social behavior. pp. 3–11. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dawkins, R. (1982). The extended phenotype. New York: Oxford University Press.

De Neys, W. (2014). Conflict detection, dual processes, and logical intuitions: Some clarifications. Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 169–187.

De Neys, W. (2006a). Automatic-heuristic and executive-analytic processing during reasoning: Chronometric and dual-task considerations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1070–1100.

De Neys, W. (2006b). Dual processing in reasoning — two systems but one reasoner. Psychological Science, 17, 428–433.

De Neys, W., & Franssens, S. (2009). Belief inhibition during thinking: Not always winning but at least taking part. Cognition, 113, 45–61.

De Neys, W., & Glumicic, T. (2008). Conflict monitoring in dual process theories of thinking. Cognition, 106, 1248–1299.

De Neys, W., Moyens, E., & Vansteenwegen, D. (2010). Feeling we’re biased: Auto- nomic arousal and reasoning conflict. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 208–216.

Dennett, D. C. (1996). Kinds of minds: Toward an understanding of consciousness. New York: Basic Books.

Dukas, R. (1998). Cognitive ecology: The evolutionary ecology of information processing and decision-making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist, 49, 709–724

Evans, J. St. B. T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223–241.

Fantino, E., & Stolarz-Fantino, S. (2005). Decision-making: Context matters. Behavioural Processes, 69, 165–171.

Frankish, K. (2009). Systems and levels: Dual-system theories and the personal-sub-personal distinction. In J. St. B. T. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond. pp. 89–107. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Frederick, S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25–42.

Gibbard, A. (1990). Wise choices, apt feelings: A theory of normative judgment. Cam- bridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Gould, S. J. (1991). Bully for the brontosaurus. New York: Norton.

Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Strack, F. (2009). Impulse and self-control from a dual- systems perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 162–176

Houston, A. I. (1997). Natural selection and context-dependent values. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 264, 1539–1541.

Hurley, S., & Nudds, M. (2006). The questions of animal rationality: Theory and evidence. In S. Hurley & M. Nudds (Eds.), Rational animals?. pp. 1–83. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Kacelnik, A. (2006). Meanings of rationality. In S. Hurley & M. Nudds (Eds.), Rational animals? (pp. 87–106). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kahneman, D. (2000). A psychological point of view: Violations of rational rules as a diagnostic of mental processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 681–683.

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment. pp. 49–81. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1973). On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 80, 237–251.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39, 341–350.

Keren, G. (1994). The rationality of gambling: Gamblers’ conceptions of probability, chance and luck. In G. W. P. Ayton (Ed.), Subjective probability (Vol. 60, pp. 485–499). Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Klein, G. (1998). Sources of power: How people make decisions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kurzban, R., Duckworth, A., Kable, J. W., & Myers, J. (2013). An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 661–679.

Loewenstein, G. F., Read, D., & Baumeister, R. (Eds.). (2003). Time and decision: Economic and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice. New York: Russell Sage.

Luce, R. D., & Raiffa, H. (1957). Games and decisions. New York: Wiley

Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. S. (2014). The economic importance of financial literacy: Theory and evidence. Journal of Economic Literature, 52, 5–44.

Marcus, G. F. (2008). Kluge: The haphazard construction of the human mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Markovits, H., & Nantel, G. (1989). The belief-bias effect in the production and evaluation of logical conclusions. Memory and Cognition, 17, 11–17.

Navon, D. (1989). The importance of being visible: On the role of attention in a mind viewed as an anarchic intelligence system. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1, 191–238

Nickerson, R. S. (2004). Cognition and chance: The psychology of probabilistic reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Oaksford, M., & Chater, N. (1998). An introduction to rational models of cognition. In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (Eds.), Rational models of cognition. pp. 1–18. New York: Oxford University Press.

Over, D. E. (2002). The rationality of evolutionary psychology. In J. L. Bermudez & A. Millar (Eds.), Reason and nature: Essays in the theory of rationality. pp. 187–207. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Peters, E. (2012). Beyond comprehension: The role of numeracy in judgments and decisions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 31–35.

Real, L. A. (1991). Animal choice behavior and the evolution of cognitive architecture. Science, 253, 980–986.

Reyna, V. F., & Brust-Renck, P. G. (2015). A review of theories of numeracy: Psycho- logical mechanisms and implications for medical decision-making. In B. L. Anderson (Ed.), Numerical reasoning in judgments and decision making about health. pp. 215–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rogers, P. (1998). The cognitive psychology of lottery gambling: A theoretical review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 111–134.

Roney, C., & Trick, L. (2009). Sympathetic magic and perceptions of randomness: The hot hand versus the gambler’s fallacy. Thinking and Reasoning, 15, 197–210.

Satz, D., & Ferejohn, J. (1994). Rational choice and social theory. Journal of Philosophy, 91, 71–87.

Savage, L. J. (1954). The foundations of statistics. New York: Wiley.

Schuck-Paim, C., & Kacelnik, A. (2002). Rationality in risk-sensitive foraging choices by starlings. Animal Behaviour, 64, 869–879.

Schuck-Paim, C., Pompilio, L., & Kacelnik, A. (2004). State-dependent decisions cause apparent violations of rationality in animal choice. PLoS Biology, 2(12), 2305–2315.

Shafir, E. (1994). Uncertainty and the difficulty of thinking through disjunctions. Cognition, 50, 403–430.

Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Eco- nomics, 69, 99–118.

Simon, H. A. (1956). Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psycho- logical Review, 63, 129–138.

Skyrms, B. (1996). The evolution of the social contract. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 3–22.

Stanovich, K. E. (2004). The robot’s rebellion: Finding meaning in the age of Darwin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Stanovich, K. E. (2009). What intelligence tests miss: The psychology of rational thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998c). Individual differences in rational thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 161–188.

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2008b). On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 672–695.

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011b). The complexity of develop- mental predictions from dual process models. Developmental Review, 31, 103–118.

Taylor, S. E. (1981). The interface of cognitive and social psychology. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, social behavior, and the environment. pp. 189–211. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Thompson, V. A. (2009). Dual-process theories: A metacognitive perspective. In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 171–195). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thompson, V. A., & Johnson, S. C. (2014). Conflict, metacognition, and analytic thinking. Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 215–244.

Thompson, V. A., & Morsanyi, K. (2012). Analytic thinking: Do you feel like it? Mind & Society, 11, 93–105.

Tomlin, D., Rand, D. G., Ludvig, E. A., & Cohen, J. D. (2015). The evolution and devolution of cognitive control: The costs of deliberation in a competitive world. Scientific Reports, 5. doi:10.1038/srep11002.

Toneatto, T. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance Use and Misuse, 34, 1593–1604.

Toplak, M. E., Liu, E., Macpherson, R., Toneatto, T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2007). The reasoning skills and thinking dispositions of problem gamblers: A dual-process taxonomy. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 103–124.

Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). The domain specificity and generality of disjunctive reasoning: Searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 197–209

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014b). Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: Development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1037–1048.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1983). Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment. Psychological Review, 90, 293–315.

Wagenaar, W. A. (1988). Paradoxes of gambling behavior. Hove, UK: Erlbaum.

Waksberg, A. J., Smith, A. B., & Burd, M. (2009). Can irrational behaviour maximise fitness? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63, 461–471.

Wason, P. C. (1960). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 129–140.

Wason, P. C. (1966). Reasoning. In B. Foss (Ed.), New horizons in psychology (pp. 135–151). Harmonsworth: Penguin.

Weller, J. A., Dieckmann, N. F., Tusler, M., Mertz, C. K., Burns, W. C., & Peters, E. (2013). Development and testing of an abbreviated numeracy scale: A Rasch analysis approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26, 198–212.

Westbrook, A., & Braver, T. S. (2015). Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 395–415.

Xu, J., & Harvey, N. (2014). Carry on winning: The gamblers’ fallacy creates hot hand effects in online gambling. Cognition, 131, 173–180.

Число просмотров

Просмотров: 274



Как цитировать

Станович, К. (2020). Преодолевая экономию когнитивной обработки: распознавание, подавление и способы мышления. Психологические исследования, 13(72). https://doi.org/10.54359/ps.v13i72.182